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 p XXI "The more science enters into our lives, the more it must be "​humanised",​ and there is no better way to humanise it than to study it history."​\\ ​ p XXI "The more science enters into our lives, the more it must be "​humanised",​ and there is no better way to humanise it than to study it history."​\\ ​
-<fc green>​The author takes some time to explain his motives for examining the history of chemistry - and science in relation to chemistry - as essential to understanding the science. ​ Note even the quotes with the opening chapter on p1.  This aligns with Jung's explanation in [[aker:collected_works:​cw5|CW5 §2-3]] about how psychology has studied the psyche to explain the past, but he would like to look in his work to the past to explain the psyche of today. ​ This goes nicely with John Read.</​fc>​+<fc green>​The author takes some time to explain his motives for examining the history of chemistry - and science in relation to chemistry - as essential to understanding the science. ​ Note even the quotes with the opening chapter on p1.  This aligns with Jung's explanation in [[collected_works:​cw5|CW5 §2-3]] about how psychology has studied the psyche to explain the past, but he would like to look in his work to the past to explain the psyche of today. ​ This goes nicely with John Read.</​fc>​
  
 p2 "​...that the alchemists had surprised some secret of cellular life which, carried into the metallurgic field, produced effect unknown now. ...It is not then from alchemy, as often stated , that modern chemistry derives, but actually from the erratic work of the Puffers.'"​ \\ <fc green>​This is interesting,​ this point of view.  On the same page the author states that Hermetism or Alchemy</​fc>​\\ "​....was in its primary intention and office the philosophic and exact science of the regeneration of the human soul...Secondarily and incidentally ..."<​fc green>​was the gold making part.\\ So we see that the view on Alchemy was that perhaps the puffers carry the bad name of alchemy today and that the Alchemists, or Hermetics, were primarily concerned with the human soul.</​fc>​ p2 "​...that the alchemists had surprised some secret of cellular life which, carried into the metallurgic field, produced effect unknown now. ...It is not then from alchemy, as often stated , that modern chemistry derives, but actually from the erratic work of the Puffers.'"​ \\ <fc green>​This is interesting,​ this point of view.  On the same page the author states that Hermetism or Alchemy</​fc>​\\ "​....was in its primary intention and office the philosophic and exact science of the regeneration of the human soul...Secondarily and incidentally ..."<​fc green>​was the gold making part.\\ So we see that the view on Alchemy was that perhaps the puffers carry the bad name of alchemy today and that the Alchemists, or Hermetics, were primarily concerned with the human soul.</​fc>​
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 <fc green>​Phlogiston = a substance supposed by 18th-century chemists to exist in all combustible bodies, and to be released in combustion.</​fc>​ <fc green>​Phlogiston = a substance supposed by 18th-century chemists to exist in all combustible bodies, and to be released in combustion.</​fc>​
  
-<fc green>​p18-19 Interesting comment on the combination (of {{:aker:alchemy:​20px-mercury_symbol.png|mercury}} & {{:aker:alchemy:​20px-sulphur.png?​13|sulphur}}) theories between Muslim and Alexandrian (Greek) alchemists. ​ The latter considered the '​tincturing spirits'​ mercury and sulphur endowed with a kinetic property which in operation led to transmutation. ​ Whereas the Muslim writers focused on the quality composition (as by different combinations of mercury and sulphur).</​fc>​+<fc green>​p18-19 Interesting comment on the combination (of {{alchemy:​20px-mercury_symbol.png|mercury}} & {{alchemy:​20px-sulphur.png?​13|sulphur}}) theories between Muslim and Alexandrian (Greek) alchemists. ​ The latter considered the '​tincturing spirits'​ mercury and sulphur endowed with a kinetic property which in operation led to transmutation. ​ Whereas the Muslim writers focused on the quality composition (as by different combinations of mercury and sulphur).</​fc>​
  
 p19 "In ancient India the Hindus held that the metals were born of the union of Hara (Shiva) and Parvati (the consort of Hara) through the help of Agni, the god of fire.  **Mercury was associated with the semen of Hara**, sulphur with Agni, and earth (or crucible <fc green>​[metals are made in the earth]</​fc>​) with Parvati."​ p19 "In ancient India the Hindus held that the metals were born of the union of Hara (Shiva) and Parvati (the consort of Hara) through the help of Agni, the god of fire.  **Mercury was associated with the semen of Hara**, sulphur with Agni, and earth (or crucible <fc green>​[metals are made in the earth]</​fc>​) with Parvati."​
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   * earth (Saturn) \\    * earth (Saturn) \\ 
 "The original conception of the //​Yin-Yang//​ dates back to about the sixth century B.C.\\ ​ "The original conception of the //​Yin-Yang//​ dates back to about the sixth century B.C.\\ ​
-//Yin// = feminine, negative, heavy, and earthy. Moon. <fc green>{{:aker:alchemy:​20px-mercury_symbol.png|mercury}}</​fc>​\\  +//Yin// = feminine, negative, heavy, and earthy. Moon. <fc green>​{{alchemy:​20px-mercury_symbol.png|mercury}}</​fc>​\\  
-//Yang// = masculine, positive, light, and fiery. Sun. <fc green>{{:aker:alchemy:​20px-sulphur.png?​13|sulphur}}</​fc>​\\ ​+//Yang// = masculine, positive, light, and fiery. Sun. <fc green>​{{alchemy:​20px-sulphur.png?​13|sulphur}}</​fc>​\\ ​
 //Yang// donates and //Yin// receives, say Wei Po-yang. ​ While, according to Ch'​ang-ch'​un,​ //Yang// and the sky are masculine and their element is fire, whereas //Yin// and the earth are feminine and their element is water. ​ Ch'​ang-sh'​un adds that //Yin//, the imperfect, can quench //Yang//, the perfect, wherefore it behoves the Taoist to lead a careful life." //Yang// donates and //Yin// receives, say Wei Po-yang. ​ While, according to Ch'​ang-ch'​un,​ //Yang// and the sky are masculine and their element is fire, whereas //Yin// and the earth are feminine and their element is water. ​ Ch'​ang-sh'​un adds that //Yin//, the imperfect, can quench //Yang//, the perfect, wherefore it behoves the Taoist to lead a careful life."
  
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 p26 "Thus, the '​mercury of the philosophers'​ - the essence or soul of the metals, **divested** of the gross physical properties represented by earth, air, fire, and water - was often identified with the **//prima materia//** of the Ionian philosophers. ​ Strip a metal of these qualities, and it yields the one **primitive matter**; impose the appropriate new qualities upon the primitive matter, and the desired new substance is attained."​ p26 "Thus, the '​mercury of the philosophers'​ - the essence or soul of the metals, **divested** of the gross physical properties represented by earth, air, fire, and water - was often identified with the **//prima materia//** of the Ionian philosophers. ​ Strip a metal of these qualities, and it yields the one **primitive matter**; impose the appropriate new qualities upon the primitive matter, and the desired new substance is attained."​
  
-p26-27 "​Later,​ the original sulphur-mercury theory was extended by the addition of slat (or '​magnesia'​) as the third member of the so-called //tria prima//, or three '​hypostatical principles'​. ​ This system is commonly represented by a triangle in alchemical symbolism. ​ Salt represented **materially** the principle of uninflammability and fixidity, and **mystically** the body of man.\\ A definite association of mercury = spirit, sulphur = soul, and salt = body was made by Paracelsus<​fc red><​sup>​46</​sup></​fc>​ in the following words: 'Know, then, that all the [[aker:​alchemy#​Seven planetary metals|seven metals]] are born from a threefold matter, namely, Mercury, Sulphur, and Salt, but with distinct and peculiar colourings...Mercury is the spirit, Sulphur is the soul, and Salt is the body ...the soul, which indeed is Sulphur ...unites those two **contraries**,​ the body and the spirit, and changes them into one essence.'"​+p26-27 "​Later,​ the original sulphur-mercury theory was extended by the addition of slat (or '​magnesia'​) as the third member of the so-called //tria prima//, or three '​hypostatical principles'​. ​ This system is commonly represented by a triangle in alchemical symbolism. ​ Salt represented **materially** the principle of uninflammability and fixidity, and **mystically** the body of man.\\ A definite association of mercury = spirit, sulphur = soul, and salt = body was made by Paracelsus<​fc red><​sup>​46</​sup></​fc>​ in the following words: 'Know, then, that all the [[:​alchemy#​Seven planetary metals|seven metals]] are born from a threefold matter, namely, Mercury, Sulphur, and Salt, but with distinct and peculiar colourings...Mercury is the spirit, Sulphur is the soul, and Salt is the body ...the soul, which indeed is Sulphur ...unites those two **contraries**,​ the body and the spirit, and changes them into one essence.'"​
  
 **//​Mercury//​** : Metallicity,​ fusibility, volatility. ​ Volatile and //​unchanged//​in the fire.  Spirit. ​ Water. Vapour.\\ ​ **//​Mercury//​** : Metallicity,​ fusibility, volatility. ​ Volatile and //​unchanged//​in the fire.  Spirit. ​ Water. Vapour.\\ ​
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 <fc green>​Taken from the book and then annotated</​fc>​ <fc green>​Taken from the book and then annotated</​fc>​
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​alchemy_timeline.png?​746|}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​alchemy_timeline.png?​746|}}
  
 ==== Ch 2. The literature of Alchemy ==== ==== Ch 2. The literature of Alchemy ====
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 <fc green>I just really like this image and its text between p56 & 57.</​fc>​ <fc green>I just really like this image and its text between p56 & 57.</​fc>​
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​metals_planets_and_signs_of_the_zodiac.png?​619|Matals planets and zodic signs}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​metals_planets_and_signs_of_the_zodiac.png?​619|Matals planets and zodic signs}}
  
 === The figures of Abraham the Jew === === The figures of Abraham the Jew ===
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 <fc green>A description of the image below and more on pp.61 </fc> <fc green>A description of the image below and more on pp.61 </fc>
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​nicolas_flammel.png?​694|Nicolas Fammel}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​nicolas_flammel.png?​694|Nicolas Fammel}}
  
 <fc green>​This image below is similar to plate 5, but not the same.  It could be from a version of //​Philosophorum Praeclara Monita// ('The most renowned maxims of philosophers'​) cf. p47 & 63, or probably something later. ​ I've chosen this version 'cause it is the only colour one I could find that goes '​ok'​ with the text in the book as a reference. </fc> <fc green>​This image below is similar to plate 5, but not the same.  It could be from a version of //​Philosophorum Praeclara Monita// ('The most renowned maxims of philosophers'​) cf. p47 & 63, or probably something later. ​ I've chosen this version 'cause it is the only colour one I could find that goes '​ok'​ with the text in the book as a reference. </fc>
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​fair_flower_on_the_mountain.jpg?​361|}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​fair_flower_on_the_mountain.jpg?​361|}}
  
 p63\\  <fc green> [Plate 7 II ~ **Plate 5** ] </​fc>"​The white and red flowers of this picture represent the white and red stages of the Great Work, the red one being identical with Ben Jonson'​s '​flower of the sun, the perfect ruby, which he calls elixir'​. ​ The dragon is sophic mercury; the griffin, a combination of lion and eagle, that is, of the fixed and the volatile. ​ \\ <fc green> [Plate 7 I] </fc> The old man with the scythe, representing Saturn or Kronos (p. 91), cutting off the feet of Mercury, signifies the fixing of mercury. ​ The adepts identified sophic mercury with the '​essence'​ of silver (p.25). ​ Now when silver is cupelled with lead, its original impurities sink into the material of the cupel, and the residual silver becomes '​fixed',​ or unalterable. ​ Thus the pure '​essence'​ of silver, or of quicksilver (regarded as a baser form of silver), has been obtained: **Saturn has cut off the feet of ordinary mercury, or quicksilver,​ and rendered it immobile**.\\ <fc green> [Plate 7 III] </​fc>​The fountain of heavy water is the **//​Hermetic stream//**, symbolic of sophic mercury (p.99).\\ ​ <fc green> [Plate 7 IV] </​fc>​...Infants'​ blood signified merely the mineral spirit of metals, '​principally in the //Sunne, Moone// , and //Mercury// ', that is, in gold, silver, and mercury.\\ ​ p63\\  <fc green> [Plate 7 II ~ **Plate 5** ] </​fc>"​The white and red flowers of this picture represent the white and red stages of the Great Work, the red one being identical with Ben Jonson'​s '​flower of the sun, the perfect ruby, which he calls elixir'​. ​ The dragon is sophic mercury; the griffin, a combination of lion and eagle, that is, of the fixed and the volatile. ​ \\ <fc green> [Plate 7 I] </fc> The old man with the scythe, representing Saturn or Kronos (p. 91), cutting off the feet of Mercury, signifies the fixing of mercury. ​ The adepts identified sophic mercury with the '​essence'​ of silver (p.25). ​ Now when silver is cupelled with lead, its original impurities sink into the material of the cupel, and the residual silver becomes '​fixed',​ or unalterable. ​ Thus the pure '​essence'​ of silver, or of quicksilver (regarded as a baser form of silver), has been obtained: **Saturn has cut off the feet of ordinary mercury, or quicksilver,​ and rendered it immobile**.\\ <fc green> [Plate 7 III] </​fc>​The fountain of heavy water is the **//​Hermetic stream//**, symbolic of sophic mercury (p.99).\\ ​ <fc green> [Plate 7 IV] </​fc>​...Infants'​ blood signified merely the mineral spirit of metals, '​principally in the //Sunne, Moone// , and //Mercury// ', that is, in gold, silver, and mercury.\\ ​
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 === The splendour of the sun === === The splendour of the sun ===
  
-<fc green>​cf. [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Transformation Of The Psyche]] </fc>+<fc green>​cf. [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Transformation Of The Psyche]] </fc>
  
 p68 "Thus, the following cryptic remark of Senior is quoted: 'Our Fire is a Water. ​ If you can give a Fire to a Fire and Mercury to Mercury, then you know enough.'"​\\ <fc green>​See comments above for p10, and quote from p16.  Fire and water exist in together, so Water is a Fire too.</​fc>​ p68 "Thus, the following cryptic remark of Senior is quoted: 'Our Fire is a Water. ​ If you can give a Fire to a Fire and Mercury to Mercury, then you know enough.'"​\\ <fc green>​See comments above for p10, and quote from p16.  Fire and water exist in together, so Water is a Fire too.</​fc>​
  
-p68 "Much emphasis is laid upon the colours which are said to appear in the preparation of the Stone. ​ It is pointed out, for example, that '​Miraldus,​ the Philosopher,​ says in the //Turba//: It turns black twice, yellow twice, and red twice....the principal colours are black, white and red; between these many other appear'​."​\\ <fc green>cF this with the [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Splendor Solis]] commentary where yellow seems to have come in before the red, and after white. ​ Also, just a note, that it was Maria the Jewess (reputed to) who first described the black.</​fc>​+p68 "Much emphasis is laid upon the colours which are said to appear in the preparation of the Stone. ​ It is pointed out, for example, that '​Miraldus,​ the Philosopher,​ says in the //Turba//: It turns black twice, yellow twice, and red twice....the principal colours are black, white and red; between these many other appear'​."​\\ <fc green>cF this with the [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Splendor Solis]] commentary where yellow seems to have come in before the red, and after white. ​ Also, just a note, that it was Maria the Jewess (reputed to) who first described the black.</​fc>​
  
 === The practical tradition in alchemy === === The practical tradition in alchemy ===
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 p83 "Here, proceeding from 'what is above' to 'that which is below',​ we obtain a comprehensive view of '​miracles of one thing'​. \\ Frist comes the celestial world with the Tetragrammaton surrounded by angels.\\ Next appears the planetary and zodiacal world.\\ This is followed by the terrestrial world, in the centre of which appears the Garden of Alchemy fully planted with the trees of the seven metals, the three principles ...\\ Below, on the left, is man, carrying the symbol of Sol, or sophic sulphur, the masculine principle;​\\ on the right, woman, with the symbol of Luna, or sophic mercury, the feminine principle; the woman stands in the Hermetic stream<​fc red><​sup>​*</​sup></​fc>​ <fc green> (see p63) </​fc>,​ and holds in her right hand a bunch of grapes, significant of fertility. ​ Both these principles take part in the alchemical operation, and are linked to the macrocosm by chains - 'bound by gold chains about the feet of God'​.<​fc red><​sup>​48</​sup></​fc> ​ The creation of the world, the generation of metals, and the reproduction of man are held to be fundamentally similar."​\\ <fc red><​sup>​*</​sup></​fc><​sub>​The horned figure facing Luna is suggestive of the metamorphosis of Actaeon into a stag, at the sight of Diana (Luna) bathing (in the Hermetic stream)</​sub>​ p83 "Here, proceeding from 'what is above' to 'that which is below',​ we obtain a comprehensive view of '​miracles of one thing'​. \\ Frist comes the celestial world with the Tetragrammaton surrounded by angels.\\ Next appears the planetary and zodiacal world.\\ This is followed by the terrestrial world, in the centre of which appears the Garden of Alchemy fully planted with the trees of the seven metals, the three principles ...\\ Below, on the left, is man, carrying the symbol of Sol, or sophic sulphur, the masculine principle;​\\ on the right, woman, with the symbol of Luna, or sophic mercury, the feminine principle; the woman stands in the Hermetic stream<​fc red><​sup>​*</​sup></​fc>​ <fc green> (see p63) </​fc>,​ and holds in her right hand a bunch of grapes, significant of fertility. ​ Both these principles take part in the alchemical operation, and are linked to the macrocosm by chains - 'bound by gold chains about the feet of God'​.<​fc red><​sup>​48</​sup></​fc> ​ The creation of the world, the generation of metals, and the reproduction of man are held to be fundamentally similar."​\\ <fc red><​sup>​*</​sup></​fc><​sub>​The horned figure facing Luna is suggestive of the metamorphosis of Actaeon into a stag, at the sight of Diana (Luna) bathing (in the Hermetic stream)</​sub>​
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​microcosm_macrocosm.jpg?​1000|Microcosm Macrocosm}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​microcosm_macrocosm.jpg?​1000|Microcosm Macrocosm}}
  
 p84 "At the bottom of the picture, the phoenix (left) is associated with two globes symbolising fire and air, and the eagle (right) with the two other globes representing water and earth. ​ The double-bodied lion is a symbol of the blending of the 'two sulphurs'​ (p221), and the surmounting figure is possibly the Elder (p156); ​ the representations of fire behind one body (left) and the Hermetic stream behind the other (right) are again indicative of sophic sulphur and sophic mercury."​ p84 "At the bottom of the picture, the phoenix (left) is associated with two globes symbolising fire and air, and the eagle (right) with the two other globes representing water and earth. ​ The double-bodied lion is a symbol of the blending of the 'two sulphurs'​ (p221), and the surmounting figure is possibly the Elder (p156); ​ the representations of fire behind one body (left) and the Hermetic stream behind the other (right) are again indicative of sophic sulphur and sophic mercury."​
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 <fc green>​p90 - Alchemical Hieroglyphics. ​ From the //Last Will and Testament// of Basil Valentine, London, 1671</​fc>​ <fc green>​p90 - Alchemical Hieroglyphics. ​ From the //Last Will and Testament// of Basil Valentine, London, 1671</​fc>​
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​alchemical_hieroglyphics.jpg?​800|Microcosm Macrocosm}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​alchemical_hieroglyphics.jpg?​800|Microcosm Macrocosm}}
  
 p92 "'​ //For they being lovers of// Wisdome //more than// Worldy Wealth, //drove at// higher //and more// Excellent Operations: //And certainly// He //to whom the whole// Course //of// Nature //lyes open, rejoyceth not so much that he can make// Gold //and// Silver ... //as that he sees the// Heavens //open, the// Angells //of// God //Ascending and Descending, and that his own Name is fairely written in the// Book of life.' Elias Ashmole."​ p92 "'​ //For they being lovers of// Wisdome //more than// Worldy Wealth, //drove at// higher //and more// Excellent Operations: //And certainly// He //to whom the whole// Course //of// Nature //lyes open, rejoyceth not so much that he can make// Gold //and// Silver ... //as that he sees the// Heavens //open, the// Angells //of// God //Ascending and Descending, and that his own Name is fairely written in the// Book of life.' Elias Ashmole."​
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 p127 "​Although sometimes described as a liquid, it is more often mentioned as a powder, which, according to its white or red colour, is able to transmute base metals into silver or gold. ...sometimes it was called the powder of projection."​ p127 "​Although sometimes described as a liquid, it is more often mentioned as a powder, which, according to its white or red colour, is able to transmute base metals into silver or gold. ...sometimes it was called the powder of projection."​
  
-<fc green>​What a curious little book this must have been, and also sold at the Church door :) Also, cf Plate I-3 in [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Transformation of the Psyche]] ...the guy with the helmet.</​fc>​\\ ​+<fc green>​What a curious little book this must have been, and also sold at the Church door :) Also, cf Plate I-3 in [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Transformation of the Psyche]] ...the guy with the helmet.</​fc>​\\ ​
 p127-128 "There is a rare little book<fc red><​sub>​19</​sub></​fc>​...which contains a list of more than 170 synonyms [for the Stone]. ​ Among these are:\\ brasse of Philosophers\\ virgins milke\\ a high man with a Sallet [helmet]\\ the shaddow of the Sun\\ a crowne overcomming a cloud\\ the bark of the Sea\\ the water of Sulphur\\ the spittle of Lune\\ venome\\ Azot\\ whiteness\\ blacker than black\\ dry water\\ the lesse world..."​\\ <fc red><​sup>​19</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ //The names of the Philosopher'​s Stone, Collected by// William Gratacolle. ​ Translated into English By the Paines and Care of H. P. London, Printed by //Thomas Harper//, and are to be sold by //John Collins// , in //Little Brittain// , near the Church door, 1652</​sub>​ p127-128 "There is a rare little book<fc red><​sub>​19</​sub></​fc>​...which contains a list of more than 170 synonyms [for the Stone]. ​ Among these are:\\ brasse of Philosophers\\ virgins milke\\ a high man with a Sallet [helmet]\\ the shaddow of the Sun\\ a crowne overcomming a cloud\\ the bark of the Sea\\ the water of Sulphur\\ the spittle of Lune\\ venome\\ Azot\\ whiteness\\ blacker than black\\ dry water\\ the lesse world..."​\\ <fc red><​sup>​19</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ //The names of the Philosopher'​s Stone, Collected by// William Gratacolle. ​ Translated into English By the Paines and Care of H. P. London, Printed by //Thomas Harper//, and are to be sold by //John Collins// , in //Little Brittain// , near the Church door, 1652</​sub>​
  
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 p131 "The Great Work and Little Work were often symbolised by the sun-tree and moon-tree respectively;​ the //materia prima// of the Stone was represented in various ways, sometimes by a star, sometimes by the interlaced triangles of [[wp>​Seal//​of//​Solomon|Solomon'​s seal]] - the sign of 'fiery water' and the symbol of wisdom."​\\ ​ p131 "The Great Work and Little Work were often symbolised by the sun-tree and moon-tree respectively;​ the //materia prima// of the Stone was represented in various ways, sometimes by a star, sometimes by the interlaced triangles of [[wp>​Seal//​of//​Solomon|Solomon'​s seal]] - the sign of 'fiery water' and the symbol of wisdom."​\\ ​
-Water {{:aker:alchemy:​20px-alchemy_water_symbol.png|water}} \\  Fire {{:aker:alchemy:​20px-alchemy_fire_symbol.png|fire}}+Water {{alchemy:​20px-alchemy_water_symbol.png|water}} \\  Fire {{alchemy:​20px-alchemy_fire_symbol.png|fire}}
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​Preparation_of_the_Stone.png?​802|Preparation of the Stone}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​preparation_of_the_stone.png?​802|Preparation of the Stone}}
  
 p133 "The acids used in these processes ... they were usually symbolised as lions or other animals swallowing the sun and moon, or devouring serpents (Plate 38ii)."​ p133 "The acids used in these processes ... they were usually symbolised as lions or other animals swallowing the sun and moon, or devouring serpents (Plate 38ii)."​
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 p134 "​Occasionally the Stone was called the Royal Child. ​ 'Its farther is the sun, its mother the moon; the wind carries it in its belly, its nurse is the earth',​ fourth precept of Hermes."​ p134 "​Occasionally the Stone was called the Royal Child. ​ 'Its farther is the sun, its mother the moon; the wind carries it in its belly, its nurse is the earth',​ fourth precept of Hermes."​
  
-p134 "​Alchemical writings on the Stone are concerned largely with accounts of the '​primitive materials'​. ​ These were not always identified with gold, silver, and quicksilver... Some alchemists depicted the existence of a universal primitive matter, known as the **Bird of Hermes** , which was supposed t...to rove continuously from heaven to earth, and earth to heaven. ​ Further, the imaginary **Adamic earth** , 'red earth',​ or '​virgin earth',​ was said - like the Stone itself - to be of universal occurrence; so that the secret of its identity had to be preserved by the esoteric brotherhood. 'When attained... the preparation of the Stone is only a labour **fit for women, or child'​s play** .' ....but Trismosin likens philosophical sublimation to '​Woman'​s Work, which consists in cooking and roasting until it is done'​."​\\ <fc green>In reference to woman'​s work, cf //Splendor Solis//, in Transformation of the Psyche, [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_iii-2_20_children_at_play|Series 3, plate 2 = Children at play]] & [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_iii-3_21_women_washing|Series 3, plate 3 = Woman Washing]] .  This reference seems too appropriate. ​ Once the '​universal primitive matter'​ has been worked over in the Hermetic Vase = Philosophers Egg (checking out the colours), then the work to prepare the stone from the material is like to woman'​s work or child'​s play....very interesting. ​ If this be the case, I wonder if the [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_iii-1_19_the_dark_sun|Series 3, plate 1 = Dark Sun]] is this material, this '​Adamic earth? ...looking at the plate of the dark sun, with its golden rays, I wonder if the dark earth is illuminated by the sun as shown by the golden rays, the masculine work...then on to woman'​s work?</​fc>​+p134 "​Alchemical writings on the Stone are concerned largely with accounts of the '​primitive materials'​. ​ These were not always identified with gold, silver, and quicksilver... Some alchemists depicted the existence of a universal primitive matter, known as the **Bird of Hermes** , which was supposed t...to rove continuously from heaven to earth, and earth to heaven. ​ Further, the imaginary **Adamic earth** , 'red earth',​ or '​virgin earth',​ was said - like the Stone itself - to be of universal occurrence; so that the secret of its identity had to be preserved by the esoteric brotherhood. 'When attained... the preparation of the Stone is only a labour **fit for women, or child'​s play** .' ....but Trismosin likens philosophical sublimation to '​Woman'​s Work, which consists in cooking and roasting until it is done'​."​\\ <fc green>In reference to woman'​s work, cf //Splendor Solis//, in Transformation of the Psyche, [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_iii-2_20_children_at_play|Series 3, plate 2 = Children at play]] & [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_iii-3_21_women_washing|Series 3, plate 3 = Woman Washing]] .  This reference seems too appropriate. ​ Once the '​universal primitive matter'​ has been worked over in the Hermetic Vase = Philosophers Egg (checking out the colours), then the work to prepare the stone from the material is like to woman'​s work or child'​s play....very interesting. ​ If this be the case, I wonder if the [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_iii-1_19_the_dark_sun|Series 3, plate 1 = Dark Sun]] is this material, this '​Adamic earth? ...looking at the plate of the dark sun, with its golden rays, I wonder if the dark earth is illuminated by the sun as shown by the golden rays, the masculine work...then on to woman'​s work?</​fc>​
  
 === Individual Processes of the Great Work === === Individual Processes of the Great Work ===
  
-<fc green>So there was the preparation of the Proximate materials - then there was the multiple processes exacted in the sealed Hermetic Vase - the Great Work proper. ​ These were nominally [[aker:Alchemy#Alchemical processes and the Zodiac signs|represented by the signs of the Zodiac]] - 12 processes. ​ </fc>+<fc green>So there was the preparation of the Proximate materials - then there was the multiple processes exacted in the sealed Hermetic Vase - the Great Work proper. ​ These were nominally [[:alchemy#Alchemical processes and the Zodiac signs|represented by the signs of the Zodiac]] - 12 processes. ​ </fc>
  
 p137 "​Norton,​ in one of his unprinted manuscripts,​ gave a scheme of **fourteen** processes, arranged in the form of a so-called '​philosophic tree'​. ​ Paracelsus accepted the number of processes as seven. ​ It was even held, by singularly optimistic adepts, that the Stone could be prepared from a single material, in a single vessel, at a single operation."​ p137 "​Norton,​ in one of his unprinted manuscripts,​ gave a scheme of **fourteen** processes, arranged in the form of a so-called '​philosophic tree'​. ​ Paracelsus accepted the number of processes as seven. ​ It was even held, by singularly optimistic adepts, that the Stone could be prepared from a single material, in a single vessel, at a single operation."​
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 p148-149 "​...the forms of vessels used in the practical operations were supposed to exert a mystical influence upon the character of the product. ​ The form of the '​double pelican',​ for example (Fig 12), was mystically connected with the process of conjunction. ​ Air, water, and earth were recognised by certain adepts as the vessels in which Nature conducted her operations. p148-149 "​...the forms of vessels used in the practical operations were supposed to exert a mystical influence upon the character of the product. ​ The form of the '​double pelican',​ for example (Fig 12), was mystically connected with the process of conjunction. ​ Air, water, and earth were recognised by certain adepts as the vessels in which Nature conducted her operations.
  
-p150 "Since the vessel was '​hermetically sealed'​ in the operation of the Great Work, it was sometimes called the House of Glass, or Prison of the King.  The '​little mountains'​ was another term applied to the Vase and its containing furnace; the 'white herb growing on the little mountains'​ was thus the white stage of the magistery."​\\ <fc green>​Called the '​little mountain - although I don't think it has direct reference as I think the mountain has symbolical links to a furnace underneath the earth, and the Trimosin precept of the earth being the mother (the wind being the belly) - cf [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_i-5_digging_for_gold|digging for gold plate]] in Transformation of the Psyche.</​fc>​+p150 "Since the vessel was '​hermetically sealed'​ in the operation of the Great Work, it was sometimes called the House of Glass, or Prison of the King.  The '​little mountains'​ was another term applied to the Vase and its containing furnace; the 'white herb growing on the little mountains'​ was thus the white stage of the magistery."​\\ <fc green>​Called the '​little mountain - although I don't think it has direct reference as I think the mountain has symbolical links to a furnace underneath the earth, and the Trimosin precept of the earth being the mother (the wind being the belly) - cf [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_i-5_digging_for_gold|digging for gold plate]] in Transformation of the Psyche.</​fc>​
  
 === Influence of the stars === === Influence of the stars ===
  
-<fc green>cf here [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Transformation of the Psyche]] </fc>+<fc green>cf here [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Transformation of the Psyche]] </fc>
  
 === Duration of the Great Work === === Duration of the Great Work ===
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 p156 <fc green>​Here is discussed some of the plates from the [[books_and_literature:​mutus_liber|Mutus Liber]] (= silent book), or in French, the //Livre Muet// .  There are some really interesting plates here. </fc> p156 <fc green>​Here is discussed some of the plates from the [[books_and_literature:​mutus_liber|Mutus Liber]] (= silent book), or in French, the //Livre Muet// .  There are some really interesting plates here. </fc>
  
-p157 "In the fourth plat (plate 25) the scene is laid in a field, in which the adept and his wife are wringing dew out of a cloth, seemingly under a heavenly influence and subject to the astrological control of the Sun in Aries and the Moon in Taurus. ​ This proceeding is reminiscent of a passage in a contemporary work by Salmon, which opens with the direction: '​Gather Dew in the Month of //May//, with a clean white Linnen Cloth spread upon the Grass'​. \\ <fc green>cf Here the [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_iii-3_21_women_washing|'​woman washing'​]] plate from the //Spendor Solis// . </​fc>​\\ ​ When this filtered May-dew is digested for fourteen days in horse-dung <fc green> [cf p144 above with reference to the horse dung = moist fire] </​fc>,​ and then distilled... and prepare 'an Elixir of a wonderful virtue in Transmuting of Metals'​.<​fc red><​sup>​*</​sup></​fc> ​ Dew was sometimes identified with the //Spiritus Mundi//, or '​spirit of the world',​ a hypothetical spirit or material which the alchemists endowed with many marvellous properties, including the power of **dissolving** gold."​\\ <fc red><​sup>​*</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ According to another account, May-dew, when distilled with the //aqua fortis//, mixed with sublimated mercury, and putrefied for a month in warm horse-dung ( //fimus equinis// ) <fc green> [cf p144 above] </​fc>,​ was said to yield the wonder-working '​virgin'​s milk' (//lac virginis//) </​sub>​+p157 "In the fourth plat (plate 25) the scene is laid in a field, in which the adept and his wife are wringing dew out of a cloth, seemingly under a heavenly influence and subject to the astrological control of the Sun in Aries and the Moon in Taurus. ​ This proceeding is reminiscent of a passage in a contemporary work by Salmon, which opens with the direction: '​Gather Dew in the Month of //May//, with a clean white Linnen Cloth spread upon the Grass'​. \\ <fc green>cf Here the [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_iii-3_21_women_washing|'​woman washing'​]] plate from the //Spendor Solis// . </​fc>​\\ ​ When this filtered May-dew is digested for fourteen days in horse-dung <fc green> [cf p144 above with reference to the horse dung = moist fire] </​fc>,​ and then distilled... and prepare 'an Elixir of a wonderful virtue in Transmuting of Metals'​.<​fc red><​sup>​*</​sup></​fc> ​ Dew was sometimes identified with the //Spiritus Mundi//, or '​spirit of the world',​ a hypothetical spirit or material which the alchemists endowed with many marvellous properties, including the power of **dissolving** gold."​\\ <fc red><​sup>​*</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ According to another account, May-dew, when distilled with the //aqua fortis//, mixed with sublimated mercury, and putrefied for a month in warm horse-dung ( //fimus equinis// ) <fc green> [cf p144 above] </​fc>,​ was said to yield the wonder-working '​virgin'​s milk' (//lac virginis//) </​sub>​
  
 <fc green>​Discussing the plates from the [[books_and_literature:​mutus_liber|Mutus Liber]] </​fc>​\\ ​ <fc green>​Discussing the plates from the [[books_and_literature:​mutus_liber|Mutus Liber]] </​fc>​\\ ​
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 ==== Ch 4. The golden tripod ==== ==== Ch 4. The golden tripod ====
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​The_golden_tripod.png?839|}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​the_golden_tripod.png?839|}}
  
-p169 "The full title is: ' [[aker:books_and_literature:​the_golden_tripod|Golden Tripod]] ', or, Three Choice Chemical Tracts, namely: That of Basilius Valentinus, a Monk of the Benedictine Order; called Practica, with twelve Keys and Appendix; The Creded Mihi <fc green>​[Believe me]</​fc>,​ or Ordinal, of Thomas Norton, an English Sage; The testament of a certain Cremer, Abbot of Westminster. ​ Edited by Michael Maier.' ​ ...The engraving on the title-page shows the Triumvirate in a laboratory, gazing at a Hermetic Vase which stands upon a Tripod; the mystic vessel is being heated on a furnace stoked by Vulcan. ...Cremerus in the middle, Norton himself on the left, Basil, lo, is seen on the right."​+p169 "The full title is: ' [[books_and_literature:​the_golden_tripod|Golden Tripod]] ', or, Three Choice Chemical Tracts, namely: That of Basilius Valentinus, a Monk of the Benedictine Order; called Practica, with twelve Keys and Appendix; The Creded Mihi <fc green>​[Believe me]</​fc>,​ or Ordinal, of Thomas Norton, an English Sage; The testament of a certain Cremer, Abbot of Westminster. ​ Edited by Michael Maier.' ​ ...The engraving on the title-page shows the Triumvirate in a laboratory, gazing at a Hermetic Vase which stands upon a Tripod; the mystic vessel is being heated on a furnace stoked by Vulcan. ...Cremerus in the middle, Norton himself on the left, Basil, lo, is seen on the right."​
  
-<fc green>​What is the [[aker:books_and_literature:​the_golden_tripod|Golden Tripod]] ( //Tripus Aureus// ) = John Cremer, Norton and Basil Valentine </fc> \\ +<fc green>​What is the [[books_and_literature:​the_golden_tripod|Golden Tripod]] ( //Tripus Aureus// ) = John Cremer, Norton and Basil Valentine </fc> \\ 
 p169 "In order to obtain a first-hand idea of the Hermetic Art, and to assimilate something of the aims, modes of thought, and methods of expression of the '​alchemical Artists;, one cannot do better than linger for a while beside one of these masterpieces of a bygone age.  Perhaps the most attractive and illuminating of all this purpose is //The Golden Tripod// " p169 "In order to obtain a first-hand idea of the Hermetic Art, and to assimilate something of the aims, modes of thought, and methods of expression of the '​alchemical Artists;, one cannot do better than linger for a while beside one of these masterpieces of a bygone age.  Perhaps the most attractive and illuminating of all this purpose is //The Golden Tripod// "
  
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 Musaeum Hermeticum cover page\\ ​ Musaeum Hermeticum cover page\\ ​
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​MusaeumHermeticum_cover_page.jpeg|Musaeum Hermeticum cover page}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​musaeumhermeticum_cover_page.jpeg|Musaeum Hermeticum cover page}}
  
 p167 "These two editions of the //Musaeum Hermeticum//​ have a handsome title-page design (plate 30) ... Sol and Luna are associated according to a common convention (plate 13) with the zodiacal symbols of the Lion and Crab, and Mercury bears the caduceus. ​ Minerva (Athena), the goddess of wisdom, with helmet, golden staff, and shield bearing an image of Medusa'​s head, is associated in the engraving with the owl, which was sacred to her in Greek mythology. ​ The phoenix symbolises renewal, and the pelican nourishing its young is a figure of revivification (p183)."​ p167 "These two editions of the //Musaeum Hermeticum//​ have a handsome title-page design (plate 30) ... Sol and Luna are associated according to a common convention (plate 13) with the zodiacal symbols of the Lion and Crab, and Mercury bears the caduceus. ​ Minerva (Athena), the goddess of wisdom, with helmet, golden staff, and shield bearing an image of Medusa'​s head, is associated in the engraving with the owl, which was sacred to her in Greek mythology. ​ The phoenix symbolises renewal, and the pelican nourishing its young is a figure of revivification (p183)."​
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​Seal_of_solomon.gif?​762|Seal of Solomon}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​seal_of_solomon.gif?​762|Seal of Solomon}}
  
 p167-168 "​...'​fiery water'​. ​ This last symbol is a six pointed star, consisting of two interlacing triangles; it may be analysed as a combination of the two symbols of fire and water, or of the four symbols of earth, air, fire, and water. ​ The design sometimes represents '​universal matter',​ sometimes the //materia prima// of the Stone, and it has also been called the seal of Solomon, or the symbol of wisdom."​ p167-168 "​...'​fiery water'​. ​ This last symbol is a six pointed star, consisting of two interlacing triangles; it may be analysed as a combination of the two symbols of fire and water, or of the four symbols of earth, air, fire, and water. ​ The design sometimes represents '​universal matter',​ sometimes the //materia prima// of the Stone, and it has also been called the seal of Solomon, or the symbol of wisdom."​
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 === Norton'​s '​Ordinall of Alchimy'​ === === Norton'​s '​Ordinall of Alchimy'​ ===
  
-<fc green>​acrostic = a poem, word puzzle, or other composition in which certain letters in each line form a word or words.\\ There is an interesting footnote in this section about Sir Isaac Newton and his interest in Alchemy. ​ The Ordinall can be found in Ashmole'​s [[aker:books_and_literature:​theatrum_chemicum_britannicum|Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum]]. </fc>+<fc green>​acrostic = a poem, word puzzle, or other composition in which certain letters in each line form a word or words.\\ There is an interesting footnote in this section about Sir Isaac Newton and his interest in Alchemy. ​ The Ordinall can be found in Ashmole'​s [[books_and_literature:​theatrum_chemicum_britannicum|Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum]]. </fc>
  
 <fc green>​This is interesting I think...</​fc>​\\ ​ <fc green>​This is interesting I think...</​fc>​\\ ​
-p176 "In a delightfully naïve reference to the fourth capital letter concerned in this cipher, Ashmole remarks: 'The great //Letter// T. set in //pa// 6. wherein the //Gryphon// is cut, should have been placed the first //Letter// of the //Line// : But this mistake was comitted in my absence ...for giving the //​Gryphons//​ hinder //Feete// , those //cloven ones// of a //Hogg// , instead of the //ungued pawes// of a //Lyon// ' "\\ <fc green>​This can be seen in the [[aker:books_and_literature:​theatrum_chemicum_britannicum|Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum]] by Ashmole.</​fc> ​+p176 "In a delightfully naïve reference to the fourth capital letter concerned in this cipher, Ashmole remarks: 'The great //Letter// T. set in //pa// 6. wherein the //Gryphon// is cut, should have been placed the first //Letter// of the //Line// : But this mistake was comitted in my absence ...for giving the //​Gryphons//​ hinder //Feete// , those //cloven ones// of a //Hogg// , instead of the //ungued pawes// of a //Lyon// ' "\\ <fc green>​This can be seen in the [[books_and_literature:​theatrum_chemicum_britannicum|Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum]] by Ashmole.</​fc> ​
  
 p176-177 <fc green>A '​philosopher'​s month' = Forty days. </fc> p176-177 <fc green>A '​philosopher'​s month' = Forty days. </fc>
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 === The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony === === The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony ===
  
-[[aker:books_and_literature:​the_triumphal_chariot_of_antimony|The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony]]+[[books_and_literature:​the_triumphal_chariot_of_antimony|The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony]]
  
 p190 "'​It is I, Antimony, that speak to you.  In me you find mercury, sulphur, and salt, the three great principles of health. ​ Mercury is in the regulus, sulphur in the red colour, and salt in the black earth which remains. ..." p190 "'​It is I, Antimony, that speak to you.  In me you find mercury, sulphur, and salt, the three great principles of health. ​ Mercury is in the regulus, sulphur in the red colour, and salt in the black earth which remains. ..."
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 p191 "...If you have performed the fusion properly - which is the point of greatest importance - you will have a beautiful star of a brilliant white. ​ The Star is as distinct as if a draughtsman had made it with a pair of compasses.'​ " p191 "...If you have performed the fusion properly - which is the point of greatest importance - you will have a beautiful star of a brilliant white. ​ The Star is as distinct as if a draughtsman had made it with a pair of compasses.'​ "
    
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​Compass.png?694|}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​compass.png?694|}}
  
-<fc green>​Taken from p61 of [[aker:books_and_literature:​secretioris_naturae|Secretioris Naturae Secretorum Scrutinium Chymicum]] </fc>+<fc green>​Taken from p61 of [[books_and_literature:​secretioris_naturae|Secretioris Naturae Secretorum Scrutinium Chymicum]] </fc>
  
 === The Last Will and Testament === === The Last Will and Testament ===
  
-[[aker:books_and_literature:​the_last_will_testament_of_basil_valentine|The Last Will and Testament of Basil Valentine]]+[[books_and_literature:​the_last_will_testament_of_basil_valentine|The Last Will and Testament of Basil Valentine]]
  
 <fc green>​...from footnote 20, '​...let it shoot [crystallise]...'​ - I like that as something to visualise. </fc> <fc green>​...from footnote 20, '​...let it shoot [crystallise]...'​ - I like that as something to visualise. </fc>
  
-p195 "He goes on to describe the oil as 'that true fluid Gold of Philosophers,​ which nature drove together from the three principles, wherein is found a spirit, soul, and body, and is that //​philosophick Gold// <fc green>​[p159 of [[aker:books_and_literature:​the_last_will_testament_of_basil_valentine|The Last Will and Testament]] ] </​fc>​saving one, which is its dissolution,​ during the fire, and not subject to any corruptibleness,​ else it flyeth away with Body and Soul, for neither water nor earth can do it any hurt, because it receiveth its first birth and beginning from a heavenly water, which in due time is poured down upon the earth. ​ In these together driven goldish waters lieth hid that **true bird and //Eagle// , the King with his heavenly //​Splendor//​ together with its clarified Salt** .'"​+p195 "He goes on to describe the oil as 'that true fluid Gold of Philosophers,​ which nature drove together from the three principles, wherein is found a spirit, soul, and body, and is that //​philosophick Gold// <fc green>​[p159 of [[books_and_literature:​the_last_will_testament_of_basil_valentine|The Last Will and Testament]] ] </​fc>​saving one, which is its dissolution,​ during the fire, and not subject to any corruptibleness,​ else it flyeth away with Body and Soul, for neither water nor earth can do it any hurt, because it receiveth its first birth and beginning from a heavenly water, which in due time is poured down upon the earth. ​ In these together driven goldish waters lieth hid that **true bird and //Eagle// , the King with his heavenly //​Splendor//​ together with its clarified Salt** .'"​
  
 === The Twelve Keys === === The Twelve Keys ===
  
-[[aker:books_and_literature:​the_twelve_keys_of_basil_valentine|The Twelve Keys]]+[[books_and_literature:​the_twelve_keys_of_basil_valentine|The Twelve Keys]]
  
 **I** \\  **I** \\ 
Line 571: Line 571:
 p206 "The open allusion to antimony in this Key serves as a connecting link between Basilius of the //Chariot// and Basilius of the //​Keys//​. ​ The Twelfth Key indicates that the Stone must be incorporated with gold before it can be used in projection for the production of new gold.  Just as the lion of the emblem changes the serpent into its own substance by devouring it, so the Stone or powder of projection - often known as the Red Lion - changes imperfect metals into its own substance, that is, gold." p206 "The open allusion to antimony in this Key serves as a connecting link between Basilius of the //Chariot// and Basilius of the //​Keys//​. ​ The Twelfth Key indicates that the Stone must be incorporated with gold before it can be used in projection for the production of new gold.  Just as the lion of the emblem changes the serpent into its own substance by devouring it, so the Stone or powder of projection - often known as the Red Lion - changes imperfect metals into its own substance, that is, gold."
     ​     ​
-p207-208 "An Appendix following the Twelfth Key is introduced by an emblem which must be regarded as an alchemical //multum in parvo// = 'much in little',​ since it contains a compressed synthetic expression of the Great Work. ... The emblem here concerned ... <fc green>​(shown below from p25 of [[aker:books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Viridarium Chymicum]] )</​fc>​+p207-208 "An Appendix following the Twelfth Key is introduced by an emblem which must be regarded as an alchemical //multum in parvo// = 'much in little',​ since it contains a compressed synthetic expression of the Great Work. ... The emblem here concerned ... <fc green>​(shown below from p25 of [[books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Viridarium Chymicum]] )</​fc>​
    
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​p25.png?​598|}}+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​p25.png?​598|}}
  
-...has nothing to do with distillation. ​ The enclosing square represents the four elements; the triangle and the three crowned serpents stand for the //tria prima// - sophic sulphur, mercury, and salt.  The two intersecting circles suggest the dual influence which Basilius defines earlier (p197) as '​celestial influence'​ and '​astral properties',​ but which is often more simply regarded as a conjunction of the masculine and feminine principles; the same idea is conveyed by the hermaphroditic '​Rebis',​ or '​Two-Thing'​ (p134). ​ One of these circles encloses the dragon'​s paws and the other his wings, thereby signifying, it may be, the fixed and volatile, or even the elements of earth and air. <fc green>​(cf p31 of [[aker:books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Viridarium Chymicum]] or p192 of [[aker:books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Symbola Aureae Mensae Duodecim Nationum]] - image below. ​ It makes me think of the toad = earth matter / sophic sulphur, connected with the eagle = air/spirit, sophic mercury. Although it looks like a rat to me in the picture.)</​fc>​ The dragon is the proximate material of the Stone (p131); the large circle symbolises universal matter; when attached to a stem, or tube, as in this emblem, it delineates the Philosopher'​s Egg.\\ ​ ...But now the Stone is composed out of one, two, three, four, and five.  Out of five - that is, the quintessence of its own substance [the Aristotelian //quinta essentia//, or 'fifth essence'​]. ​ Out of four, by which we must understand the four elements. ​ Out of three, and these are the three principles of all things. ​ Out of two, for the mercurial substance is twofold. ​ Out of one, and this is the first essence of everything which emanated from the primal fiat of creation.'"​+...has nothing to do with distillation. ​ The enclosing square represents the four elements; the triangle and the three crowned serpents stand for the //tria prima// - sophic sulphur, mercury, and salt.  The two intersecting circles suggest the dual influence which Basilius defines earlier (p197) as '​celestial influence'​ and '​astral properties',​ but which is often more simply regarded as a conjunction of the masculine and feminine principles; the same idea is conveyed by the hermaphroditic '​Rebis',​ or '​Two-Thing'​ (p134). ​ One of these circles encloses the dragon'​s paws and the other his wings, thereby signifying, it may be, the fixed and volatile, or even the elements of earth and air. <fc green>​(cf p31 of [[books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Viridarium Chymicum]] or p192 of [[books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Symbola Aureae Mensae Duodecim Nationum]] - image below. ​ It makes me think of the toad = earth matter / sophic sulphur, connected with the eagle = air/spirit, sophic mercury. Although it looks like a rat to me in the picture.)</​fc>​ The dragon is the proximate material of the Stone (p131); the large circle symbolises universal matter; when attached to a stem, or tube, as in this emblem, it delineates the Philosopher'​s Egg.\\ ​ ...But now the Stone is composed out of one, two, three, four, and five.  Out of five - that is, the quintessence of its own substance [the Aristotelian //quinta essentia//, or 'fifth essence'​]. ​ Out of four, by which we must understand the four elements. ​ Out of three, and these are the three principles of all things. ​ Out of two, for the mercurial substance is twofold. ​ Out of one, and this is the first essence of everything which emanated from the primal fiat of creation.'"​
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​p192-Avicenna_the_Arabian.png?​685|}}\\  +{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​p192-avicenna_the_arabian.png?​685|}}\\  
-<fc green>​Plate 2ii Avicenna the Arabian, taken from [[aker:books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Symbola Aureae Mensae Duodecim Nationum]] also to be found p31 of [[aker:books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Viridarium Chymicum]] </fc>+<fc green>​Plate 2ii Avicenna the Arabian, taken from [[books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Symbola Aureae Mensae Duodecim Nationum]] also to be found p31 of [[books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Viridarium Chymicum]] </fc>
  
-p210 "​...The second, which is reproduced below (Plate 39) from a seventeenth-century French engraving, shows the cubic Stone in the midst of seven flowers representing the heavenly bodies."​ <fc green>​Interesting comment worth noting about the flowers representing the planets - this is interesting when you think of the flowered decorations of the illustrations of the [[aker:books_and_literature:​the_splendor_solis|Splendor Solis]]...</​fc> ​+p210 "​...The second, which is reproduced below (Plate 39) from a seventeenth-century French engraving, shows the cubic Stone in the midst of seven flowers representing the heavenly bodies."​ <fc green>​Interesting comment worth noting about the flowers representing the planets - this is interesting when you think of the flowered decorations of the illustrations of the [[books_and_literature:​the_splendor_solis|Splendor Solis]]...</​fc> ​
  
-p211 "​...indicates that the Work must be begun when the Sun is in the sign of the Ram, and that its consummation must be reached in the Bull, 'when the fortieth dawn returns'​. (p271)"​ <fc green>​Here again, another interesting comment when you consider Image four from [[books_and_literature:​mutus_liber|Mutus Liber]] where the sun is in the sign of the Ram, and also, when you consider the woodcut book, [[aker:books_and_literature:​the_planets_and_their_children|The Planets and their Children]] then referenced in [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Transformation of the Psyche]] when discussing the [[aker:books_and_literature:​the_splendor_solis|Splendor Solis]], the diddy for Sol says, 'In the Ram I rule and reign. ​ But in the Maid I fail, I wane'. </​fc> ​+p211 "​...indicates that the Work must be begun when the Sun is in the sign of the Ram, and that its consummation must be reached in the Bull, 'when the fortieth dawn returns'​. (p271)"​ <fc green>​Here again, another interesting comment when you consider Image four from [[books_and_literature:​mutus_liber|Mutus Liber]] where the sun is in the sign of the Ram, and also, when you consider the woodcut book, [[books_and_literature:​the_planets_and_their_children|The Planets and their Children]] then referenced in [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche|Transformation of the Psyche]] when discussing the [[books_and_literature:​the_splendor_solis|Splendor Solis]], the diddy for Sol says, 'In the Ram I rule and reign. ​ But in the Maid I fail, I wane'. </​fc> ​
 ==== Ch 6. A Musical Alchemist ==== ==== Ch 6. A Musical Alchemist ====
 === Libavius on Enigmas of the Stone === === Libavius on Enigmas of the Stone ===
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​1913633.jpeg?​400|}}\\ ​+{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​1913633.jpeg?​400|}}\\ ​
 <fc green>​p215 - An Emblem of Heinrich Kuhdorfer, taken from //​Commentariorum Alchymiae// ('​Handbook of Alchemy'​) by Andreas Libavius, (1606) </fc> <fc green>​p215 - An Emblem of Heinrich Kuhdorfer, taken from //​Commentariorum Alchymiae// ('​Handbook of Alchemy'​) by Andreas Libavius, (1606) </fc>
    
Line 614: Line 614:
 'What each of these means is not easy to say, for their applications are different, and there is also occasional variety in the Work itself. ... <fc green>​There is some more explanation here about each bit. </​fc>"​ 'What each of these means is not easy to say, for their applications are different, and there is also occasional variety in the Work itself. ... <fc green>​There is some more explanation here about each bit. </​fc>"​
  
-| {{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​1913635.jpeg?​400|}} \\ Plate 40 | {{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​1913631.jpeg?​400|}}\\ ​ <fc green>A similar emblem from the same book that is nice to compare. </​fc> ​ |+| {{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​1913635.jpeg?​400|}} \\ Plate 40 | {{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​1913631.jpeg?​400|}}\\ ​ <fc green>A similar emblem from the same book that is nice to compare. </​fc> ​ |
  
 <fc green>In reference to Plate 40...there is a further explanation of the letters in this image, I've written some of the interesting ones here... </fc> \\  <fc green>In reference to Plate 40...there is a further explanation of the letters in this image, I've written some of the interesting ones here... </fc> \\ 
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 <fc green> **The explanation goes on and is worth reading.** ​ The general image seems to depict the three stage process from the one egg divided by a number of processes, then to the two eggs connected by the swan, then to the union in the egg at the top above which is the phoenix, and the multiplication shown by a number of birds flying away. </fc> \\  <fc green> **The explanation goes on and is worth reading.** ​ The general image seems to depict the three stage process from the one egg divided by a number of processes, then to the two eggs connected by the swan, then to the union in the egg at the top above which is the phoenix, and the multiplication shown by a number of birds flying away. </fc> \\ 
  
-{{:aker:books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​1913636.jpeg?​400|}} \\ +{{books_and_literature:​prelude_to_chemistry:​1913636.jpeg?​400|}} \\ 
 p220, Fig 16 - The Bath of the Philosophers p220, Fig 16 - The Bath of the Philosophers
  
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 ===  The twelve chosen Heroes of Chymistry === ===  The twelve chosen Heroes of Chymistry ===
  
-[[aker:books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Symbola Aureae Mensae Duodecim Nationum]] ​ <fc green>​See title page of this book for the twelve medaillons showing the twelve heros. </fc>+[[books_and_literature:​symbola_aureae|Symbola Aureae Mensae Duodecim Nationum]] ​ <fc green>​See title page of this book for the twelve medaillons showing the twelve heros. </fc>
  
 p222 "These are, in order:​\\ ​ p222 "These are, in order:​\\ ​
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 ==== Ch 7. The Gardens of Hermes ==== ==== Ch 7. The Gardens of Hermes ====
  
-<fc green>In reference to p41 of [[aker:books_and_literature:​viridarium_chymicum|Viridarium Chymicum]] ...</​fc>​\\  +<fc green>In reference to p41 of [[books_and_literature:​viridarium_chymicum|Viridarium Chymicum]] ...</​fc>​\\  
-p259 "In his epigram dealing with Maier'​s illustration of the vegetable kingdom, Stolcius outlines his ideal alchemical garden. ​ 'As a garden grows green with excellent herbs and plants,'​ he says, 'so this our garden presents a many-coloured spectacle. ​ On this side is the iris, the vine, lunary and moly, corn-harvests,​ and thy flower, oh blushing rose, the fruits of the Hesperides, the mulberry and runaway Daphne, also the golden bough, the myrtle, olive and saffron."​\\ <fc green>​This makes me think of the decorative flora and fauna border in the illustrations of the Spendor Solis, cf [[aker:books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_i-1_a_sick_sun_and_a_healthy_sun|Transformation of the Psyche]]. ​ Splendor Solis is c16th century, so a little before 1624 of Viridarium Chymicum. </​fc>​\\ "Each of these items has a definite alchemical significance. \\ The iris is reminiscent of the rainbow colours of the Great Work (p146); \\ the vine is a symbol of fruitfulness;​ \\ lunary is the potent signature-herb of Luna (p98); \\ moly is the magic herb with black root and white flower given by Hermes to Ulysses as a counter-charm against the spells of Circe - 'hard for mortal men to dig, howbeit with the gods all things are possible';​ \\ the corn-harvest,​ particularly wheat, represents cibation (p139) <fc green> (The process or operation of feeding the contents of the crucible with fresh material.) </​fc>,​ and also the vital principle (p95); \\ the rose is Ben Jonson'​s '​flower of the sun, the perfect ruby, which he calls elixir';​ \\ the golden apples of the Hesperides and the golden bough are symbolical of the gold-making powers of the Stone; \\ mulberry ministers to the mysterious transmuting powers of the silk-worm; \\ the myrtle is a symbol of immortality;​ \\ the olive is sacred to Minerva, the goddess of wisdom; \\ saffron typifies the power of dyeing or tingeing, which was associated with the Philosopher'​s Stone (p206). ​ \\ Runaway Daphne is the laurel, because Daphne ran away from Apollo (Phoebus) and turned into a laurel-bush;​ in alchemy, Phoebus and Daphne sometimes represent the fixed and volatile principles, sometimes the masculine and feminine, as exemplified in an old English poem contained in Elias Ashmole'​s collection (p163)."​+p259 "In his epigram dealing with Maier'​s illustration of the vegetable kingdom, Stolcius outlines his ideal alchemical garden. ​ 'As a garden grows green with excellent herbs and plants,'​ he says, 'so this our garden presents a many-coloured spectacle. ​ On this side is the iris, the vine, lunary and moly, corn-harvests,​ and thy flower, oh blushing rose, the fruits of the Hesperides, the mulberry and runaway Daphne, also the golden bough, the myrtle, olive and saffron."​\\ <fc green>​This makes me think of the decorative flora and fauna border in the illustrations of the Spendor Solis, cf [[books_and_literature:​transformation_of_the_psyche#​plate_i-1_a_sick_sun_and_a_healthy_sun|Transformation of the Psyche]]. ​ Splendor Solis is c16th century, so a little before 1624 of Viridarium Chymicum. </​fc>​\\ "Each of these items has a definite alchemical significance. \\ The iris is reminiscent of the rainbow colours of the Great Work (p146); \\ the vine is a symbol of fruitfulness;​ \\ lunary is the potent signature-herb of Luna (p98); \\ moly is the magic herb with black root and white flower given by Hermes to Ulysses as a counter-charm against the spells of Circe - 'hard for mortal men to dig, howbeit with the gods all things are possible';​ \\ the corn-harvest,​ particularly wheat, represents cibation (p139) <fc green> (The process or operation of feeding the contents of the crucible with fresh material.) </​fc>,​ and also the vital principle (p95); \\ the rose is Ben Jonson'​s '​flower of the sun, the perfect ruby, which he calls elixir';​ \\ the golden apples of the Hesperides and the golden bough are symbolical of the gold-making powers of the Stone; \\ mulberry ministers to the mysterious transmuting powers of the silk-worm; \\ the myrtle is a symbol of immortality;​ \\ the olive is sacred to Minerva, the goddess of wisdom; \\ saffron typifies the power of dyeing or tingeing, which was associated with the Philosopher'​s Stone (p206). ​ \\ Runaway Daphne is the laurel, because Daphne ran away from Apollo (Phoebus) and turned into a laurel-bush;​ in alchemy, Phoebus and Daphne sometimes represent the fixed and volatile principles, sometimes the masculine and feminine, as exemplified in an old English poem contained in Elias Ashmole'​s collection (p163)."​
  
 === The Emblems of (Johann Daniel) Mylius === === The Emblems of (Johann Daniel) Mylius ===