Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
Next revision
Previous revision
collected_works:cw6 [2016/01/31 02:27]
janus
collected_works:cw6 [2017/02/14 05:08]
janus ↷ Links adapted because of a move operation
Line 126: Line 126:
 [[aker:​Religion|Σ]] §80 "... religion offers stereotyped symbolic concepts that are meant to take the place of his unconscious once and for all.  The symbolic concepts of all religions are recreations of unconscious processes in a typical, universally binding form. ... Wherever we can observe a religion being born, we see how the doctrinal figures flow into the founder himself as revelations,​ in other words as concretisations of his unconscious fantasy. ​ The forms welling up from his unconscious are declared to be universally valid and thus replace the individual fantasies of others."​ [[aker:​Religion|Σ]] §80 "... religion offers stereotyped symbolic concepts that are meant to take the place of his unconscious once and for all.  The symbolic concepts of all religions are recreations of unconscious processes in a typical, universally binding form. ... Wherever we can observe a religion being born, we see how the doctrinal figures flow into the founder himself as revelations,​ in other words as concretisations of his unconscious fantasy. ​ The forms welling up from his unconscious are declared to be universally valid and thus replace the individual fantasies of others."​
  
-<fc green>​83pp talk about the language of psychology and the language of science. ​ It is very interesting. Cf. this with the introduction to [[aker:books_and_literature:​atom_and_archetype|Atom and Archetype]] : The Pauli / Jung Letters, 1932-1958</​fc>​+<fc green>​83pp talk about the language of psychology and the language of science. ​ It is very interesting. Cf. this with the introduction to [[books_and_literature:​atom_and_archetype|Atom and Archetype]] : The Pauli / Jung Letters, 1932-1958</​fc>​
  
 §83 "... We must be content with the fact that the unconscious was suppressed. ​ Psychologically,​ the suppression consists in a withdrawal of libido. ​ The libido thus gained promotes the growth and development of the conscious attitude, ... " §83 "... We must be content with the fact that the unconscious was suppressed. ​ Psychologically,​ the suppression consists in a withdrawal of libido. ​ The libido thus gained promotes the growth and development of the conscious attitude, ... "
Line 267: Line 267:
 §211 <fc green>​Very interesting para. as well as quote from Schiller about //reality// and //​appearance//,​ the antithesis of real and unreal respectively. ​ The symbol is both in as much as it has a uniting function and brings together both real and unreal. ​ The use of the word //​appearance//​ is slightly difficult to grasp here.  Note how in the quote Schiller equates '​reality'​ to '​truth'​. ​ Here then Schiller seems to espouse the potential to embrace //​appearance//​ and reality equally as 'a decisive step towards culture.'​ This little sketch helped me bring together the last part of Schiller'​s comments.</​fc>​ §211 <fc green>​Very interesting para. as well as quote from Schiller about //reality// and //​appearance//,​ the antithesis of real and unreal respectively. ​ The symbol is both in as much as it has a uniting function and brings together both real and unreal. ​ The use of the word //​appearance//​ is slightly difficult to grasp here.  Note how in the quote Schiller equates '​reality'​ to '​truth'​. ​ Here then Schiller seems to espouse the potential to embrace //​appearance//​ and reality equally as 'a decisive step towards culture.'​ This little sketch helped me bring together the last part of Schiller'​s comments.</​fc>​
  
-{{:aker:collected_works:​schiller_reality_appearance.jpg?​200|}}+{{collected_works:​schiller_reality_appearance.jpg?​200|}}
  
 <fc green>​I'​m not sure if Jung continues to use the word //​appearance//​ with the same implication in the next paragraph, appearance <=> projection. ​ More accurately, a false appearance => projection. ​ I think he does, and quoting Schiller who mentions the separation of "form from being"​. ​ Form = thoughts, idea, appearance. ​ Being = reality? ​ It does seem that the terms reality and appearance = projection, are in use.  It is very confusing.</​fc>​ <fc green>​I'​m not sure if Jung continues to use the word //​appearance//​ with the same implication in the next paragraph, appearance <=> projection. ​ More accurately, a false appearance => projection. ​ I think he does, and quoting Schiller who mentions the separation of "form from being"​. ​ Form = thoughts, idea, appearance. ​ Being = reality? ​ It does seem that the terms reality and appearance = projection, are in use.  It is very confusing.</​fc>​
Line 307: Line 307:
 <fc green>​This is a very brief overview showing the chronological view of some of the people Jung presents and discusses - whom themselves have demonstrated or '​contributed'​ as Jung puts it towards the concept of psychological types. ​ This illustration is by no means exhaustive but shows some chronological context.</​fc> ​ <fc green>​This is a very brief overview showing the chronological view of some of the people Jung presents and discusses - whom themselves have demonstrated or '​contributed'​ as Jung puts it towards the concept of psychological types. ​ This illustration is by no means exhaustive but shows some chronological context.</​fc> ​
  
-{{:aker:collected_works:​cw6_timeline.jpg?​200|}}+{{collected_works:​cw6_timeline.jpg?​200|}}
  
 === 2. Special description and criticism of Jordan'​s types === === 2. Special description and criticism of Jordan'​s types ===
Line 521: Line 521:
 === Collective === === Collective ===
  
-692 "I term //​collective//​ all psychic contents that belong not to one individual but to many, i.e., to a society, a people, or to mankind in general. ​ Such contents are what Lévy-Bruhl<​fc red><​sup>​18</​sup></​fc>​ calls the //​représentations collectives//​ of primitives, as well as general concepts of justice, the state, religion, science, etc., current among civilised man. ... " ​ <fc green>​See [[aker:collected_works:​cw9i|CW9i,​ The Archetype and the Collective Unconscious]] </fc>+692 "I term //​collective//​ all psychic contents that belong not to one individual but to many, i.e., to a society, a people, or to mankind in general. ​ Such contents are what Lévy-Bruhl<​fc red><​sup>​18</​sup></​fc>​ calls the //​représentations collectives//​ of primitives, as well as general concepts of justice, the state, religion, science, etc., current among civilised man. ... " ​ <fc green>​See [[collected_works:​cw9i|CW9i,​ The Archetype and the Collective Unconscious]] </fc>
  
 === Compensation === === Compensation ===
  
-[[malefic:​igap:​neurosis|Ν]] §693 "means //​balancing//,​ //​adjusting//,​ //​supplementing//​. ​ The concept was introduced into the psychology of the neuroses by Adler.<​fc red><​sup>​20</​sup></​fc>​\\ <fc red><​sup>​20</​sup></​fc><​sub>//​The Neurotic Constitution//​. ​ References to the theory of compensation,​ originally inspired by G. Anton, are also to be found in Gross.</​sub>​\\ \\ <fc green>​Worth reading - the real nugget in the paragraph though I think is not so much the details of Adlers theory that Jung mentions but rather the theme of compensation that Adler highlighted,​ and that it is a process of the '​organism'​ (organs for Adler). ​ This is important as it resonates with Jung's 'self regulating'​ ideas of the psyche as a system and therefore, in this the compensatory aspect in neurosis comes through. ​ As Jung says at the end of the paragraph; </fc> "It corresponds to a similar function in the physiological sphere, namely, the self-regulation of the living organism."​\\ §694 "... I conceive it as functional adjustment in general, an inherent self-regulation of the psychic apparatus.<​fc red><​sup>​24</​sup></​fc> ​ **//In this sense, I regard the activity of the //​[[#​Unconscious|unconscious]]//​ (q.v.) as a balancing of the one-sidedness of the general //​[[#​Attitude|attitude]]//​ (q.v.) produced by the function of //​[[#​Consciousness|consciousness]]//​ (q.v.)//**. ... " ​ <fc green>​Worth reading on.  The para. continues with the discussion of how the tension of opposing attitudes develops and should it become too one sided, then the unconscious content will come through in the form of dreams and //​[[#​Images|images]]//​ as we know.  The theme of enantiodromia is present here.</​fc>​ "As a rule, the unconscious compensation does not run counter to consciousness,​ but is rather a balancing or supplementing of the conscious orientation. ​ **//In dreams, for instance, the unconscious supplies all those contents that are constellated by the conscious situation but are inhibited by conscious selection//​**,​ <fc green>​(See earlier discussion about how the subjective contents determine selection/​direction of the conscious attitude at the exclusion of other content. ​ Compensation can be in opposition but this is extreme when the conscious attitude has become very one-sided.)</​fc>​ although a knowledge of them would be indispensable for complete adaptation."​\\ <fc red><​sup>​24</​sup></​fc><​sub>​Jung,​ " [[aker:collected_works:​cw3|On the importance of the Unconscious in Psychopathology]],"​ pars. 449ff.</​sub>​\\ §695 "​Normally,​ compensation is an unconscious process, ... In neurosis the unconscious appears in such stark contrast to the conscious state that compensation is disturbed. ​ **//The aim of analytical therapy, therefore, is a realisation of unconscious contents in order that compensation <fc green>​(the process)</​fc>​ may be re-established//​**. "+[[malefic:​igap:​neurosis|Ν]] §693 "means //​balancing//,​ //​adjusting//,​ //​supplementing//​. ​ The concept was introduced into the psychology of the neuroses by Adler.<​fc red><​sup>​20</​sup></​fc>​\\ <fc red><​sup>​20</​sup></​fc><​sub>//​The Neurotic Constitution//​. ​ References to the theory of compensation,​ originally inspired by G. Anton, are also to be found in Gross.</​sub>​\\ \\ <fc green>​Worth reading - the real nugget in the paragraph though I think is not so much the details of Adlers theory that Jung mentions but rather the theme of compensation that Adler highlighted,​ and that it is a process of the '​organism'​ (organs for Adler). ​ This is important as it resonates with Jung's 'self regulating'​ ideas of the psyche as a system and therefore, in this the compensatory aspect in neurosis comes through. ​ As Jung says at the end of the paragraph; </fc> "It corresponds to a similar function in the physiological sphere, namely, the self-regulation of the living organism."​\\ §694 "... I conceive it as functional adjustment in general, an inherent self-regulation of the psychic apparatus.<​fc red><​sup>​24</​sup></​fc> ​ **//In this sense, I regard the activity of the //​[[#​Unconscious|unconscious]]//​ (q.v.) as a balancing of the one-sidedness of the general //​[[#​Attitude|attitude]]//​ (q.v.) produced by the function of //​[[#​Consciousness|consciousness]]//​ (q.v.)//**. ... " ​ <fc green>​Worth reading on.  The para. continues with the discussion of how the tension of opposing attitudes develops and should it become too one sided, then the unconscious content will come through in the form of dreams and //​[[#​Images|images]]//​ as we know.  The theme of enantiodromia is present here.</​fc>​ "As a rule, the unconscious compensation does not run counter to consciousness,​ but is rather a balancing or supplementing of the conscious orientation. ​ **//In dreams, for instance, the unconscious supplies all those contents that are constellated by the conscious situation but are inhibited by conscious selection//​**,​ <fc green>​(See earlier discussion about how the subjective contents determine selection/​direction of the conscious attitude at the exclusion of other content. ​ Compensation can be in opposition but this is extreme when the conscious attitude has become very one-sided.)</​fc>​ although a knowledge of them would be indispensable for complete adaptation."​\\ <fc red><​sup>​24</​sup></​fc><​sub>​Jung,​ " [[collected_works:​cw3|On the importance of the Unconscious in Psychopathology]],"​ pars. 449ff.</​sub>​\\ §695 "​Normally,​ compensation is an unconscious process, ... In neurosis the unconscious appears in such stark contrast to the conscious state that compensation is disturbed. ​ **//The aim of analytical therapy, therefore, is a realisation of unconscious contents in order that compensation <fc green>​(the process)</​fc>​ may be re-established//​**. "
  
 === Concretism === === Concretism ===
Line 536: Line 536:
  
 <fc green>​Concretism</​fc>​\\ ​ <fc green>​Concretism</​fc>​\\ ​
-{{:aker:collected_works:​functions-concretism.png?​300|}}+{{collected_works:​functions-concretism.png?​300|}}
  
 [[#top|back to top]] [[#top|back to top]]
Line 546: Line 546:
 === Constructive === === Constructive ===
  
-[[malefic:​igap:​Neurosis|Ν]] §701 "​Constructive means "​building up." ​ I use //​constructive//​ and //​synthetic//​ to designate a **//​method//​** that is the antithesis of the //​[[#​Reductive|reductive]]//​ <fc red><​sup>​28</​sup></​fc> ​ The constructive **//​method//​** is concerned with the elaboration of the products of the unconscious (dreams, //​[[#​Fantasy|fantasies]]//,​ etc.). ​ It takes the unconscious product as a //​[[#​Symbol|symbolic]]//​ expression which anticipates a coming phase of psychological development. ... Adler too recognises an **//​anticipatory function//​** of the unconscious.<​fc red><​sup>​31</​sup></​fc>​ ... We conceive the product of the unconscious,​ therefore, as an expression oriented to a goal or purpose <fc green>​(Teleological)</​fc>,​ but characterising its objective in symbolic language.<​fc red><​sup>​33</​sup></​fc>"​ <fc green>​(Emphasis mine)</​fc>​\\ <fc red><​sup>​28</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ //[[aker:collected_works:​cw7|Two Essays on Analytical Psychology]]//,​ pars. 121ff.</​sub>​\\ <fc red><​sup>​31</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ //The Neurotic Constitution//​ </​sub>​\\ <fc red><​sup>​33</​sup></​fc><​sub>​Silberer ( //Problems of Mysticism and Its Symbolism//,​ pp. 241ff.) expresses himself in a similar way in his formulation of //​anagogic//​ significance.</​sub>​+[[malefic:​igap:​Neurosis|Ν]] §701 "​Constructive means "​building up." ​ I use //​constructive//​ and //​synthetic//​ to designate a **//​method//​** that is the antithesis of the //​[[#​Reductive|reductive]]//​ <fc red><​sup>​28</​sup></​fc> ​ The constructive **//​method//​** is concerned with the elaboration of the products of the unconscious (dreams, //​[[#​Fantasy|fantasies]]//,​ etc.). ​ It takes the unconscious product as a //​[[#​Symbol|symbolic]]//​ expression which anticipates a coming phase of psychological development. ... Adler too recognises an **//​anticipatory function//​** of the unconscious.<​fc red><​sup>​31</​sup></​fc>​ ... We conceive the product of the unconscious,​ therefore, as an expression oriented to a goal or purpose <fc green>​(Teleological)</​fc>,​ but characterising its objective in symbolic language.<​fc red><​sup>​33</​sup></​fc>"​ <fc green>​(Emphasis mine)</​fc>​\\ <fc red><​sup>​28</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ //​[[collected_works:​cw7|Two Essays on Analytical Psychology]]//,​ pars. 121ff.</​sub>​\\ <fc red><​sup>​31</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ //The Neurotic Constitution//​ </​sub>​\\ <fc red><​sup>​33</​sup></​fc><​sub>​Silberer ( //Problems of Mysticism and Its Symbolism//,​ pp. 241ff.) expresses himself in a similar way in his formulation of //​anagogic//​ significance.</​sub>​
  
-{{:aker:collected_works:​exegesis.png?​420|}}+{{collected_works:​exegesis.png?​420|}}
  
  
Line 562: Line 562:
  
 New-content New-content
-| {{:aker:collected_works:​new-content.png?​420|}} | New content may be an idea, or a dream or fantasy. The antecedent of the content is not always from the individual per se but then again, once something has been '​recognised'​ as new content then it is new in us so to speak irrespective or where it came from. So the new idea / content is in our head. It is the '​object'​ and we are the '​subject'​ with out own subjective - associative - content. |+| {{collected_works:​new-content.png?​420|}} | New content may be an idea, or a dream or fantasy. The antecedent of the content is not always from the individual per se but then again, once something has been '​recognised'​ as new content then it is new in us so to speak irrespective or where it came from. So the new idea / content is in our head. It is the '​object'​ and we are the '​subject'​ with out own subjective - associative - content. |
  
 **//​[[#​Apperception|Apperception]]//​** - Active **//​[[#​Apperception|Apperception]]//​** - Active
-| {{:aker:collected_works:​apperception-active.png?​420|}} | Active Apperception is within the guidance of the ego. The new content is associated with already constellated content and understanding. The important thing here is the way the new content is integrated - there is a more healthy balance of the contents objective identity so that it is not consumed within the predominating associative attitude or material. The new content maintains its objective identity as well as drawing on other established content. I think to some degree this may include comparative material. The associative material does not drown out the new content (compared with assimilation). |+| {{collected_works:​apperception-active.png?​420|}} | Active Apperception is within the guidance of the ego. The new content is associated with already constellated content and understanding. The important thing here is the way the new content is integrated - there is a more healthy balance of the contents objective identity so that it is not consumed within the predominating associative attitude or material. The new content maintains its objective identity as well as drawing on other established content. I think to some degree this may include comparative material. The associative material does not drown out the new content (compared with assimilation). |
  
 **// [[#​Apperception|Apperception]]//​** - Passive **// [[#​Apperception|Apperception]]//​** - Passive
-| {{:aker:collected_works:​apperception-passive.png?​420|}} | Passive Apperception occurs without ego awareness. The difference here I think is that the new content may - depending on the individual and the content, bring an imbalance to the psyche as in a neurosis. The compensatory aspect of the content may be completely different to that of the psyche'​s established attitude. With this in mind I've shown how the passive apperception is dominated by the content itself - the impact on the individuals psyche is then determined by other factors like attitude, the compensatory aspect of the content etc.  |+| {{collected_works:​apperception-passive.png?​420|}} | Passive Apperception occurs without ego awareness. The difference here I think is that the new content may - depending on the individual and the content, bring an imbalance to the psyche as in a neurosis. The compensatory aspect of the content may be completely different to that of the psyche'​s established attitude. With this in mind I've shown how the passive apperception is dominated by the content itself - the impact on the individuals psyche is then determined by other factors like attitude, the compensatory aspect of the content etc.  |
  
 **// [[#​Assimilation|Assimilation]]//​** (process) **// [[#​Assimilation|Assimilation]]//​** (process)
-| {{:aker:collected_works:​assimilation.png?​420|}} | Assimilation is just like apperception although in this process the associative content dominates and like the Borg on Star Trek, the new content is assimilated to the prevailing attitude such that the objective identity is consumed within the associative constellations and thus loses - or it is ignored, its objective identity. What is in consciousness for the most part determines the individuals attitude. As such, the attitude is dominated by the constellated content in consciousness. This attitude choses then what is important with the objective content at, potentially,​ the detriment of the new objective content value so that the new ideas are lost and the lens focuses on the associative / similar aspects of the new content and this then is how it is consumed, or assimilated. So you can see in the diagram the objective content retains very little of its original identity. It is different from Apperception due to the subjective bearing on the content. \\ Jung takes the idea of assimilation a little further and talks of '​dissimilation'​ and '​assimilation'​.\\ Dissimilation : where the individual is //​assimilated//​ to the object. So the individual loses their subjective identity and is assimilated to the objective ideas. A little bit like passive apperception.\\ Assimilation : as discussed above, where the objective content is consumed within the subjective content. Cf. with //​[[#​Introjection|introjection]]//​ |+| {{collected_works:​assimilation.png?​420|}} | Assimilation is just like apperception although in this process the associative content dominates and like the Borg on Star Trek, the new content is assimilated to the prevailing attitude such that the objective identity is consumed within the associative constellations and thus loses - or it is ignored, its objective identity. What is in consciousness for the most part determines the individuals attitude. As such, the attitude is dominated by the constellated content in consciousness. This attitude choses then what is important with the objective content at, potentially,​ the detriment of the new objective content value so that the new ideas are lost and the lens focuses on the associative / similar aspects of the new content and this then is how it is consumed, or assimilated. So you can see in the diagram the objective content retains very little of its original identity. It is different from Apperception due to the subjective bearing on the content. \\ Jung takes the idea of assimilation a little further and talks of '​dissimilation'​ and '​assimilation'​.\\ Dissimilation : where the individual is //​assimilated//​ to the object. So the individual loses their subjective identity and is assimilated to the objective ideas. A little bit like passive apperception.\\ Assimilation : as discussed above, where the objective content is consumed within the subjective content. Cf. with //​[[#​Introjection|introjection]]//​ |
  
 **// [[#​Constructive|Constructive]]//​** method **// [[#​Constructive|Constructive]]//​** method
-| {{:aker:collected_works:​constructive.png?​420|}} | The constructive method is the antithesis of the //​[[#​Reductive|reductive]]//​ method. The constructive method draws on comparative as well as associative material to - in the manner of association,​ build up the new content to be more clear and bring new understanding. The constructive method develops the idea - see the different ways of Exegesis above. I would say it is a method that uses apperception to circulate the content as in the diagram. The result is a more clear understanding of the new content with enough associative and comparative information to bring the new content in to understanding while it retains its objective identity, incorporating both new ideas and existing associative content. |+| {{collected_works:​constructive.png?​420|}} | The constructive method is the antithesis of the //​[[#​Reductive|reductive]]//​ method. The constructive method draws on comparative as well as associative material to - in the manner of association,​ build up the new content to be more clear and bring new understanding. The constructive method develops the idea - see the different ways of Exegesis above. I would say it is a method that uses apperception to circulate the content as in the diagram. The result is a more clear understanding of the new content with enough associative and comparative information to bring the new content in to understanding while it retains its objective identity, incorporating both new ideas and existing associative content. |
  
 **// [[#​Constructive|Constructive]]//​** method - Intuitive approach **// [[#​Constructive|Constructive]]//​** method - Intuitive approach
-| {{:aker:collected_works:​constructive-intuitive.png?​420|}} | The intuitive approach to the Constructive method confines the scope of material available to the more associative domain. This can be very useful and certainly done consciously but results in more of an assimilation as the only content available with-which to elucidate the objective content is associative content. Here an individual I should imagine must either sit for a long time without understanding perhaps - and be happy to sit with it. This can be a good thing. Or, they can perhaps try take the content in immediately,​ in which case the objective identity will most likely be consumed for the most part by the associative content. ​ |+| {{collected_works:​constructive-intuitive.png?​420|}} | The intuitive approach to the Constructive method confines the scope of material available to the more associative domain. This can be very useful and certainly done consciously but results in more of an assimilation as the only content available with-which to elucidate the objective content is associative content. Here an individual I should imagine must either sit for a long time without understanding perhaps - and be happy to sit with it. This can be a good thing. Or, they can perhaps try take the content in immediately,​ in which case the objective identity will most likely be consumed for the most part by the associative content. ​ |
  
 **// [[#​Reductive|Reductive]]//​** method **// [[#​Reductive|Reductive]]//​** method
-| {{:aker:collected_works:​reductive.png?​420|}} | The reductive method is more of a collective approach in contrast to the constructive method that focuses on the individual. The reductive method seeks to break the new content down to its original associations irrespective of subjective content - in the first instance. In so doing, comparative material dominates to bring the object to clarity. Then, the object is elucidated by the collective views and how this may fit in to the individual content. The drawing shows the dominance of the comparative material and the new objective identity with little to no associative content. This leads to a more uniform collective view as everyone is '​reduced'​ to the comparative material understanding and is a less subjective view. This can be good and bring stability I think, and religion can be like this...but it can also leads to a subdued individual psychic energy as all opinions and views are then taken from the collective stance. Where this collective stance satisfies the psychic requirements - like religion, it can work. If it strays too far from the psychic needs though, it will collapse and the individuals will rebel eventually. |+| {{collected_works:​reductive.png?​420|}} | The reductive method is more of a collective approach in contrast to the constructive method that focuses on the individual. The reductive method seeks to break the new content down to its original associations irrespective of subjective content - in the first instance. In so doing, comparative material dominates to bring the object to clarity. Then, the object is elucidated by the collective views and how this may fit in to the individual content. The drawing shows the dominance of the comparative material and the new objective identity with little to no associative content. This leads to a more uniform collective view as everyone is '​reduced'​ to the comparative material understanding and is a less subjective view. This can be good and bring stability I think, and religion can be like this...but it can also leads to a subdued individual psychic energy as all opinions and views are then taken from the collective stance. Where this collective stance satisfies the psychic requirements - like religion, it can work. If it strays too far from the psychic needs though, it will collapse and the individuals will rebel eventually. |
  
 [[#top|back to top]] [[#top|back to top]]
Line 629: Line 629:
 §715 "In fantasies as in dreams (**//which are nothing but passive fantasies//​**),​ a **//​manifest//​** and a **//​latent//​** meaning must be distinguished. ​ The manifest meaning is found in the actual "​look"​ of the fantasy image, in the direct statement made by the underlying complex of ideas."​ §715 "In fantasies as in dreams (**//which are nothing but passive fantasies//​**),​ a **//​manifest//​** and a **//​latent//​** meaning must be distinguished. ​ The manifest meaning is found in the actual "​look"​ of the fantasy image, in the direct statement made by the underlying complex of ideas."​
  
-{{:aker:collected_works:​fantasy.png?​680|}}+{{collected_works:​fantasy.png?​680|}}
  
  
Line 685: Line 685:
 <fc green>​Two rational : //​[[#​Thinking|Thinking]]//​ and //​[[#​Feeling|Feeling]]//​. \\ Two irrational : //​[[#​Sensation|Sensation]]//​ and //​[[#​Intuition|Intuition]]//​. \\ Things like fantasy, //will//, //​attention//​ are secondary phenomena that utilise the four functions. ​ The four functions it seems are not sensibly reduced further...they are the LCD of conscious psychic functionality.</​fc>​ <fc green>​Two rational : //​[[#​Thinking|Thinking]]//​ and //​[[#​Feeling|Feeling]]//​. \\ Two irrational : //​[[#​Sensation|Sensation]]//​ and //​[[#​Intuition|Intuition]]//​. \\ Things like fantasy, //will//, //​attention//​ are secondary phenomena that utilise the four functions. ​ The four functions it seems are not sensibly reduced further...they are the LCD of conscious psychic functionality.</​fc>​
  
-{{:aker:collected_works:​functions.png?​250|}}+{{collected_works:​functions.png?​250|}}
  
 [[#top|back to top]] [[#top|back to top]]
Line 721: Line 721:
 §745 <fc green>​The image is a</​fc>​ "​homogeneous product with a meaning of its own.  The image is a **//​condensed expression of the psychic situation as a whole//**, of unconscious contents pure and simple."​ <fc green>​Unconscious contents</​fc>​ ..."​that are momentarily constellated. ... Accordingly the image is an expression of the unconscious as well as the conscious situation of the moment. ​ The interpretation of its meaning, therefore, can start neither from the conscious alone nore from the unconscious alone, but only from their reciprocal relationship."​ §745 <fc green>​The image is a</​fc>​ "​homogeneous product with a meaning of its own.  The image is a **//​condensed expression of the psychic situation as a whole//**, of unconscious contents pure and simple."​ <fc green>​Unconscious contents</​fc>​ ..."​that are momentarily constellated. ... Accordingly the image is an expression of the unconscious as well as the conscious situation of the moment. ​ The interpretation of its meaning, therefore, can start neither from the conscious alone nore from the unconscious alone, but only from their reciprocal relationship."​
  
-§746 "I call the image //​primordial//​ when it possesses an //​[[#​Archaic|archaic]]//​ character.<​fc red><​sup>​60</​sup></​fc>​ ... It then expresses material primarily derived from the //​[[#​Unconscious|collective unconscious]]//,​ ..." <fc green>​Read further for //​Collective//​ image vs. //​Personal//​ image.</​fc>​ \\ <fc red><​sup>​60</​sup></​fc><​sub>​A striking example of an archaic image is that of the ssolar phallus, [[aker:collected_works:​cw5|Symbols of Transformation]],​ pars. 151ff.</​sub>​+§746 "I call the image //​primordial//​ when it possesses an //​[[#​Archaic|archaic]]//​ character.<​fc red><​sup>​60</​sup></​fc>​ ... It then expresses material primarily derived from the //​[[#​Unconscious|collective unconscious]]//,​ ..." <fc green>​Read further for //​Collective//​ image vs. //​Personal//​ image.</​fc>​ \\ <fc red><​sup>​60</​sup></​fc><​sub>​A striking example of an archaic image is that of the ssolar phallus, [[collected_works:​cw5|Symbols of Transformation]],​ pars. 151ff.</​sub>​
  
 [[Malefic.MalPaper1|Λ]] §747 "The primordial image, elsewhere also termed archetype,<​fc red><​sup>​61</​sup></​fc>​ is always collective, i.e., it is at least common to entire peoples or epochs. ..." <fc green>I find this comment - and the rest of this paragraph interesting - from the perspective of the unconscious content and the primordial image. ​ I'd have thought it better to say the image should be termed '​archetypal'​ as opposed to termed '​archetype'​. ​ I can see it being archetypal, but as an archetype - these images are potentially going to change if they are common to an epoch. ​ These images being common across cultures as he later goes on to say makes sense too, but then they are //​archetypal//,​ not an archetype. ​ This is interesting to me from the time perspective too, will these images change over time - I think they will.  Will their //​archetypal//​ character (or '​motif'​ as Jung says later) change...no,​ they won't. </fc> [[Malefic.MalPaper1|Λ]] §747 "The primordial image, elsewhere also termed archetype,<​fc red><​sup>​61</​sup></​fc>​ is always collective, i.e., it is at least common to entire peoples or epochs. ..." <fc green>I find this comment - and the rest of this paragraph interesting - from the perspective of the unconscious content and the primordial image. ​ I'd have thought it better to say the image should be termed '​archetypal'​ as opposed to termed '​archetype'​. ​ I can see it being archetypal, but as an archetype - these images are potentially going to change if they are common to an epoch. ​ These images being common across cultures as he later goes on to say makes sense too, but then they are //​archetypal//,​ not an archetype. ​ This is interesting to me from the time perspective too, will these images change over time - I think they will.  Will their //​archetypal//​ character (or '​motif'​ as Jung says later) change...no,​ they won't. </fc>
Line 780: Line 780:
 === Intellect === === Intellect ===
  
-§766 "I call //​[[#​Thinking|directed thinking]]//​ intellect."​ <fc green>​Cf. [[aker:collected_works:​cw5#​II//​Two//​Kinds//​of//​Thinking//​4//​46|CW 5, paras. 11ff. ]] </fc>+§766 "I call //​[[#​Thinking|directed thinking]]//​ intellect."​ <fc green>​Cf. [[collected_works:​cw5#​II//​Two//​Kinds//​of//​Thinking//​4//​46|CW 5, paras. 11ff. ]] </fc>
  
 === Introjection === === Introjection ===
Line 816: Line 816:
 === Irrational === === Irrational ===
  
-§774 "I use this term not as denoting something //​contrary//​ to reason, but something //beyond// reason, something, therefore, not grounded in reason."​ <fc green>​Cf. [[aker:collected_works:​cw8|Synchronicity:​ An Acausal Connecting Principle]] ...I think Jung sees synchronicity as irrational but a fact. </fc>+§774 "I use this term not as denoting something //​contrary//​ to reason, but something //beyond// reason, something, therefore, not grounded in reason."​ <fc green>​Cf. [[collected_works:​cw8|Synchronicity:​ An Acausal Connecting Principle]] ...I think Jung sees synchronicity as irrational but a fact. </fc>
  
 §775 <fc green>An interesting discussion on the irrational as an existential factor. ​ A rationally explained world would be a Utopian ideal. ​ In reality, much of our rational explanations are derived from posited facts that exclude the unexplained at our convenience. ​ We can only go so far '​back'​ before we hit the unexplained,​ or rather, irrational. ​ This is true for empirical facts too. For example, we live in a galaxy and orbit the sun every 365 days.  This is an empirical fact, however, why this is so...what is the rationale behind 365 days, we don't know.  The rational argument falls short. </fc> §775 <fc green>An interesting discussion on the irrational as an existential factor. ​ A rationally explained world would be a Utopian ideal. ​ In reality, much of our rational explanations are derived from posited facts that exclude the unexplained at our convenience. ​ We can only go so far '​back'​ before we hit the unexplained,​ or rather, irrational. ​ This is true for empirical facts too. For example, we live in a galaxy and orbit the sun every 365 days.  This is an empirical fact, however, why this is so...what is the rationale behind 365 days, we don't know.  The rational argument falls short. </fc>
Line 856: Line 856:
 §784 "We may distinguish //passive// and //active// projection. ...  The active form is an essential component of the act of //​[[#​Empathy|empathy]]//​. Taken as a whole, empathy is a process of introjection,​ since it brings the object into intimate relation with the subject. ​ <fc green>​(Cf. with **active** //​[[#​Introjection|Introjection]]//​ )</​fc>​ In order to establish this relationship,​ the subject detaches a content - a feeling, for instance - from himself, lodges it in the object, thereby animating it, and in this way draws the object into the sphere of the subject. ​ The active form of projection is, however, also an act of judgement, the aim of which is to separate the subject from the object. ... **//​Projection,​ accordingly,​ is a process of [[#​Introversion|introversion]] since, unlike introjection,​ it does not lead to ingestion and [[#​Assimilation|assimilation]] but to differentiation and separation of subject from object//**. Hence it plays a prominent role in paranoia, which usually ends in the total isolation of the subject."​ §784 "We may distinguish //passive// and //active// projection. ...  The active form is an essential component of the act of //​[[#​Empathy|empathy]]//​. Taken as a whole, empathy is a process of introjection,​ since it brings the object into intimate relation with the subject. ​ <fc green>​(Cf. with **active** //​[[#​Introjection|Introjection]]//​ )</​fc>​ In order to establish this relationship,​ the subject detaches a content - a feeling, for instance - from himself, lodges it in the object, thereby animating it, and in this way draws the object into the sphere of the subject. ​ The active form of projection is, however, also an act of judgement, the aim of which is to separate the subject from the object. ... **//​Projection,​ accordingly,​ is a process of [[#​Introversion|introversion]] since, unlike introjection,​ it does not lead to ingestion and [[#​Assimilation|assimilation]] but to differentiation and separation of subject from object//**. Hence it plays a prominent role in paranoia, which usually ends in the total isolation of the subject."​
  
-{{:aker:collected_works:​empathy.png?​650|}}+{{collected_works:​empathy.png?​650|}}
  
 [[#top|back to top]] [[#top|back to top]]
Line 877: Line 877:
 §788 "​...means "​leading back." ​ I use this term to denote a method of psychological interpretation which regards the unconscious product not as a //​[[#​Symbol|symbol]]//​ but //​semiotically//,​ as a //sign// or //symptom// of an underlying process. ... The reductive method is oriented backwards, in contrast to the //​[[#​Constructive|constructive]]//​ method, ...  The interpretive methods of both [[wp>​Freud|Freud]] and [[wp>​Alfred//​Adler|Adler]] are reductive, since in both cases there is a reduction to the elementary processes of wishing or striving, " §788 "​...means "​leading back." ​ I use this term to denote a method of psychological interpretation which regards the unconscious product not as a //​[[#​Symbol|symbol]]//​ but //​semiotically//,​ as a //sign// or //symptom// of an underlying process. ... The reductive method is oriented backwards, in contrast to the //​[[#​Constructive|constructive]]//​ method, ...  The interpretive methods of both [[wp>​Freud|Freud]] and [[wp>​Alfred//​Adler|Adler]] are reductive, since in both cases there is a reduction to the elementary processes of wishing or striving, "
  
-<fc green>​xRef [[aker:collected_works:​cw7#​iv_the_problem_of_the_attitude-type|CW 7 The Problem of the Attitude Type]]</​fc>​+<fc green>​xRef [[collected_works:​cw7#​iv_the_problem_of_the_attitude-type|CW 7 The Problem of the Attitude Type]]</​fc>​
  
 === 46. Self === === 46. Self ===
Line 900: Line 900:
 By the time t<​sub>​2</​sub>​ happens the leaf has fallen that much further. ​ Given the speed of light, this is a mute example, but the principle is still the same.  We then must wonder if perhaps there is another perception organ - perhaps intuition - that can perceive things more immediately,​ when they actually happen? ​ There are any number of fun discussions around this topic. ​   ​ By the time t<​sub>​2</​sub>​ happens the leaf has fallen that much further. ​ Given the speed of light, this is a mute example, but the principle is still the same.  We then must wonder if perhaps there is another perception organ - perhaps intuition - that can perceive things more immediately,​ when they actually happen? ​ There are any number of fun discussions around this topic. ​   ​
  
-{{:aker:collected_works:​time.png|}}+{{collected_works:​time.png|}}
  
 §794 \\  §794 \\ 
Line 926: Line 926:
  
 §800 "... The man who identifies with this mask I would call "​personal"​ as opposed to "​individual.""​\\ ​ §800 "... The man who identifies with this mask I would call "​personal"​ as opposed to "​individual.""​\\ ​
-<fc green>​For persona, see:</​fc>​ <fc red><​sup>​79</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ [[aker:collected_works:​cw7|Two Essays on Analytical Psychology]] CW7, pars. 243ff.</​sub>  ​+<fc green>​For persona, see:</​fc>​ <fc red><​sup>​79</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ [[collected_works:​cw7|Two Essays on Analytical Psychology]] CW7, pars. 243ff.</​sub>  ​
  
 §801 <fc green>​Jung continues here with his example of the **work** and **home** personalities,​ or "​personae"​...and that </​fc>"​...the real individuality is different from both." <fc green>​(most likely)</​fc>​\\ ​ §801 <fc green>​Jung continues here with his example of the **work** and **home** personalities,​ or "​personae"​...and that </​fc>"​...the real individuality is different from both." <fc green>​(most likely)</​fc>​\\ ​
Line 1005: Line 1005:
 === 53. Thinking === === 53. Thinking ===
  
-§830 "​...one of the four basic psychological //​[[#​Functions|functions]]//​. ​ ... It is an //​[[#​Apperception|apperceptive]]//​ activity, and as such may be divided into //active// and //passive// thinking. ​ Active thinking is an act of //​[[#​Will|will]]//,​ passive thinking is a mer occurrence. ..." <fc green>​(Also,​ Cf. [[aker:collected_works:​cw5#​II//​Two//​Kinds//​of//​Thinking//​1674//​45//​46|CW5]] 'Two kinds of thinking',​ Directed and Symbolic thinking.) ​ This next bit is very interesting:​ </fc> "​Active thinking, accordingly,​ would correspond to my concept of //directed thinking//. <fc red><​sup>​85</​sup></​fc> ​ Passive thinking was inadequately described in my previous work as "​fantasy thinking."<​fc red><​sup>​86</​sup></​fc> ​ Today I would call it //​intuitive//​ thinking."​\\  +§830 "​...one of the four basic psychological //​[[#​Functions|functions]]//​. ​ ... It is an //​[[#​Apperception|apperceptive]]//​ activity, and as such may be divided into //active// and //passive// thinking. ​ Active thinking is an act of //​[[#​Will|will]]//,​ passive thinking is a mer occurrence. ..." <fc green>​(Also,​ Cf. [[collected_works:​cw5#​II//​Two//​Kinds//​of//​Thinking//​1674//​45//​46|CW5]] 'Two kinds of thinking',​ Directed and Symbolic thinking.) ​ This next bit is very interesting:​ </fc> "​Active thinking, accordingly,​ would correspond to my concept of //directed thinking//. <fc red><​sup>​85</​sup></​fc> ​ Passive thinking was inadequately described in my previous work as "​fantasy thinking."<​fc red><​sup>​86</​sup></​fc> ​ Today I would call it //​intuitive//​ thinking."​\\  
-<fc red><​sup>​86</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ [[aker:collected_works:​cw5#​II//​Two//​Kinds//​of//​Thinking//​1674//​45//​46|Ibid.,​ par. 20]]</​sub>​+<fc red><​sup>​86</​sup></​fc><​sub>​ [[collected_works:​cw5#​II//​Two//​Kinds//​of//​Thinking//​1674//​45//​46|Ibid.,​ par. 20]]</​sub>​
  
 §831 <fc green>​Jung clearly relates thinking to judgement, whether intentional or not.  By judgement, he means linking a course of thinking by means of a concept, a concept around which one is focused. ​ He therefore places thinking like '​associative thinking'​ (linking of ideas by association) as 'mere ideation,'​ and not thinking per se. </fc> §831 <fc green>​Jung clearly relates thinking to judgement, whether intentional or not.  By judgement, he means linking a course of thinking by means of a concept, a concept around which one is focused. ​ He therefore places thinking like '​associative thinking'​ (linking of ideas by association) as 'mere ideation,'​ and not thinking per se. </fc>