Reference
Jung, C. G. (1966) Two Essays on Analytical Psychology, The collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 7. Bollingen Series XX, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J. Fourth Printing 1977

I On the Psychology of the Unconscious

I. Psychoanalysis

§2 “To Freud belongs the undying merit of having laid the foundations of a psychology of the neuroses.”

τ §4 “Already in Charcot's time it was known that the neurotic symptom is ''psychogenic,” i.e., originates in the psyche. … But it was not known how an hysterical symptom originates in the psyche; the psychic causal connections were completely unknown. …
From a large number of like experiences it had been concluded that only the conscious mind of the patient does not see and hear, but that the sense function is otherwise in working order.“ The fact that there is no known physiological disruption leaves it down to a psychogenic issue. So thinking must have a psychic contingent that can block the physiological.

§5 “The patient devised the name “talking cure” for it or, jokingly, “chimney-sweeping.” xRef para. 414

§8 “Hence there arose the so-called trauma theory, which says that the hysterical symptom, and, in so far as the symptoms constitute the illness, hysteria in general, derive from psychic injuries or traumata whose imprint persists unconsciously for years. …
To this problem medicine gives an excel- lent answer: “The x in the calculation is predisposition.” One is just “predisposed” that way.” xRef 417

§9 ” That is to say, it is not the shock as such that has a pathogenic effect under all circumstances, but, in order to have an effect, it must impinge on a special psychic disposition, which may, in certain circumstances, consist in the patient's unconsciously attributing a specific significance to the shock.”

§10 “For it had become clear with increasing experience that in all the cases analysed so far, there existed, apart from the traumatic experiences, another, special class of disturbances which lie in the province of love.”

§13 “So once more we return to our original question, namely, whence comes the pathological (i.e., peculiar or exaggerated) nature of the reaction to the trauma? On the basis of a conclusion drawn from analogous experiences, we conjectured that in this case too there must be, in addition to the trauma, a disturbance in the erotic sphere.”

§15 “The trauma theory has therefore been abandoned as antiquated; for with the discovery that not the trauma but a hidden erotic conflict is the root of the neurosis, the trauma loses its causal significance.11
11Genuine shock-neuroses like shell-shock, “railway spine,” etc. form an exception.

II. The Eros Theory

§16 “If we formulate these facts theoretically, we arrive at the following result: there are in a neurosis two tendencies standing in strict opposition to one another, one of which is unconscious. …
The neurotic is only a special instance of the disunited man who ought to harmonize nature and culture within himself.”

§17 “The growth of culture consists, as we know, in a progressive subjugation of the animal in man. It is a process of domestication which cannot be accomplished without rebellion on the part of the animal nature that thirsts for freedom. …
That, however, does nothing to alter the fundamental fact that man's instinctual nature is always coming up against the checks imposed by civilization. …
Without being aware of it, the neurotic participates in the dominant currents of his age and reflects them in his own conflict.”

§18 “Neurosis is intimately bound up with the problem of our time and really represents an unsuccessful attempt on the part of the individual to solve the general problem in his own person. Neurosis is self-division. In most people the cause of the division is that the conscious mind wants to hang on to its moral ideal, while the unconscious strives after its - in the contemporary sense - unmoral ideal which the conscious mind tries to deny.”

§20 “Obviously the great question for this technique is: How are we to arrive by the shortest and best path at a knowledge of what is happening in the unconscious of the patient?
The original method was hypnotism: …
A second method was evolved by the Psychiatric Clinic, in Zurich, the so-called association method.
But the most important method of getting at the pathogenic conflicts is, as Freud was the first to show, through the analysis of dreams.”

§21 ”… it soon becomes evident that his associations tend in a particular direction and group themselves round particular topics. These are of personal significance and yield a meaning which could never have been conjectured to lie behind the dream, but which, as careful comparison has shown, stands in an extremely delicate and meticulously exact relationship to the dream facade.“ He goes on to talk about wish fulfilment and Freud.

§23 “If we follow the history of a neurosis with attention, we regularly find a critical moment when some problem emerged that was evaded.”

§26 “The analytical method in general, and not only the specifically Freudian psychoanalysis, consists in the main of numerous dream-analyses.”

§27 “The symptom is therefore, in Freud's view, the fulfilment of unrecognized desires which, when conscious, come into violent conflict with our moral convictions. … he does not “possess” the unconscious impulses at all. Thrust out from the hierarchy of the conscious psyche, they have become autonomous complexes which it is the task of analysis, not without great resistances, to bring under control again.”

§28 “It is true that psychoanalysis makes the animal instincts conscious, though not, as many would have it, with a view to giving them boundless freedom, but rather to incorporating them in a purposeful whole. It is under all circumstances an advantage to be in full possession of one's personality, otherwise the repressed elements will only crop up as a hindrance elsewhere, …”

§30 “We can of course take the view that the repressed remnants of decency are in this case only a traditional hang-over from infancy, which imposes an unnecessary check on instinctual nature and should therefore be eradicated. …
… morality was not brought down on tables of stone from Sinai and imposed on the people, but is a function of the human soul, as old as humanity itself. Morality is not imposed from outside; we have it in ourselves from the start — not the law, but our moral nature without which the collective life of human society would be impossible. That is why morality is found at all levels of society. It is the instinctive regulator of action which also governs the collective life of the herd.”

§31 “Just as in the early Middle Ages finance was held in contempt because there was as yet no differentiated financial morality to suit each case, but only a mass morality, so today there is only a mass sexual morality.” The morality of our time, mostly sexual

§32 “He (Eros) belongs on one side to man's primordial animal nature which will endure as long as man has an animal body. On the other side he is related to the highest forms of the spirit. But he thrives only when spirit and instinct are in right harmony.
Too much of the animal distorts the civilized man, too much civilization makes sick animals.” Emphasis mine

§33 “Thus Freud's sexual theory of neurosis is grounded on a true and factual principle. But it makes the mistake of being one-sided and exclusive; also it commits the imprudence of trying to lay hold of unconfinable Eros with the crude terminology of sex.” Jung then goes on to mention Freud's theory of the destructive instinct (Thanatos) which lies in opposition to the creative Eros instinct.

III. The Other Point of View: The Will to Power

§35 “To unite oneself with this shadow is to say yes to instinct, to that formidable dynamism lurking in the background. From this the ascetic morality of Christianity wishes to free us, but at the risk of disorganizing man's animal nature at the deepest level.” Is it only the morality aspect? Religion as an organising principle - is that morality?

IV. The Problem of the Attitude-Type

§57 “Adler sees how a subject who feels suppressed and inferior tries to secure an illusory superiority by means of “protests,” “arrangements,” and other appropriate devices directed equally against parents, teachers, regulations, authorities, situations, institutions, and such. Even sexuality may figure among these devices. This view lays undue emphasis upon the subject, before which the idiosyncrasy and significance of objects entirely vanish. Objects are regarded at best as vehicles of suppressive tendencies. I shall probably not be wrong in assuming that t he love r elation a nd other de sires directed upon objects exist equally in Adler as essential factors; yet in his theory of neurosis they do no t play the principal role assigned to them by Freud.”

§58 “Freud sees his patient in perpetual dependence on, and in relation to, significant objects. Father and mother play a large part here; whatever other significant influences or conditions enter into the life of t he patient go back in a direct line of causality to these prime factors. The Piece de resistance of his theory is the concept of transference, i.e., the patient's relation to the doctor. Always a specifically qualified object is either desired or met with resistance, and this reaction always follows the pattern established in earliest childhood through the relation to father and mother.”

§59 “Certainly both investigators see the subject in relation to the object; but how differently t his r elation is seen! With Adler the emphasis is placed on a subject who, no matter what the object, seeks his ow n security and supremacy; with Freud the emphasis is placed wholly upon objects, which, according to their specific character, either promote or hinder the subject's desire for pleasure.” Emphasis mine

§62 Jung presents his two types, “namely introversion and extraversion.”

§63 “In other cases, for instance with neurotics, one frequently does not know whether one is dealing with a conscious or an unconscious attitude because, owing to the dissociation of the personality, sometimes one half of it and sometimes the other half occupies the foreground and confuses one's judgment.” Emphasis and italics mine. This is just a good summary of the confrontation with a complex.

Speaking of Freud and Adler's theory:
§65 “Both are painfully inclined to reduce high-flown ideals, heroic attitudes, nobility of feeling, deep convictions, to some banal reality, if applied to such things as these. …
They are critical methods, having, like all criticism, the power to do good when there is something that must be destroyed, dissolved, or reduced, but capable only of harm when there is something to be built.”
§67 “They say to everything, “You are nothing but. . . .” They explain to the sufferer that his symptoms come from here and from there and are nothing but this or that.”

§67 “This is true of all life's psychological expressions, even of pathological symptoms. The symptoms of a neurosis are not simply the effects of long-past causes, whether “infantile sexuality” or the infantile urge to power; they are also attempts at a new synthesis of life - unsuccessful attempts, … They are seeds that fail to sprout owing to the inclement conditions of inner and outer nature.”

§68 “The reader will doubtless ask: What in the world is the value and meaning of a neurosis, this most useless and pestilent curse of humanity?

There are actually people who have the whole meaning of their life, their true significance, in the unconscious, while in the conscious mind is nothing but inveiglement and error. With others the case is reversed, and here neurosis has a different meaning. In these cases, but not in the former, a thoroughgoing reduction is indicated.” Emphasis mine

§70 “The two theories we have been discussing evidently have this much in common: they pitilessly unveil everything that belongs to man's shadow-side.”

§71 “A “value” is a possibility for the display of energy. …
Energy in itself is neither good nor bad, neither useful nor harmful, but neutral, since everything depends on the form into which energy passes. Form gives energy its quality. On the other hand, mere form without energy is equally neutral. For the creation of a real value, therefore, both energy and valuable form are needed. …
Now, it has hitherto been supposed that this newly disengaged energy is at the conscious disposal of the patient, so that he can apply it at his pleasure. Since it was thought that the energy is nothing but the instinctual power of sex, people talked of a “sublimated” application of it, on the assumption that the patient could, with the help of analysis, canalize the sexual energy into a “sublimation,” in other words, could apply it non-sexually, in the practice of an art, perhaps, or in some other good or useful activity. According to this view, it is possible for the patient, from free choice or inclination, to achieve the sublimation of his instinctual forces.”

§72 ”… These are the demands which, if not fulfilled, are the cause of neurosis. …
Our will is a function regulated by reflection; hence it is dependent on the quality of that reflection. This, if it really is reflection, is supposed to be rational, i.e., in accord with reason. But has it ever been shown, or will it ever be, that life and fate are in accord with reason, that they too are rational? We have on the contrary good grounds for supposing that they are irrational, or rather that in the last resort they are grounded beyond human reason.“

About war and energy:
In 1913, Wilhelm Ostwald wrote:

The whole world is agreed that the present state of armed peace is untenable and is gradually becoming impossible. It demands tremendous sacrifices from each single nation, far exceeding the expenditure for cultural purposes, yet without securing any positive values. If mankind could discover ways and means for doing away with these preparations for wars which never take place, together with the immobilization of a large part of the nation's manhood, at the age of maximum strength and efficiency, for the furtherance of war- like aims, and all the other innumerable evils which the present state of affairs creates, such an immense economy of energy would be effected that from this moment onwards we could look forward to a blossoming of culture hitherto undreamed of. For war, like personal combat, although the oldest of all possible means of settling contests of will, is on that very account the most inept, and entails the most grievous waste of energy. Hence the complete abolition of warfare, potential no less than actual, is the categorical imperative of efficiency and one of the supremely important cultural tasks of our day.5

Causality vs probability
4Modern physics has put an end to this strict causality. Now there is only “statistical probability.” As far back as 1916, I had pointed out the limitations of the causal view in psychology, for which I was heavily censured at the time. See my preface to the second edition of Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology, in Freud and Psychoanalysis, pp. 2Q3ff.

§74 “Civilization is the rational, “purposeful” sublimation of free energies, brought about by will and intention. It is the same with the individual; and just as the idea of a world civilization received a fearful correction at the hands of war, so the individual must often learn in his life that so-called “disposable” energies are not his to dispose.” Emphasis mine. This is critical I think - not least of all with the comment of war but this idea that culture and civilization is a subjugation of the internal spirit and instinct, xRef para. 17.

§75 ” … But fate behaves irrationally, and the energy of life inconveniently demands a gradient agreeable to itself; otherwise it simply gets dammed up and turns destructive.“

§76 ”… it does not lie in our power to transfer “disposable” energy at will to a rationally chosen object. The same is true in general of the apparently disposable energy which is disengaged when we have destroyed its unserviceable forms through the corrosive of reductive analysis. … Psychic energy is a very fastidious thing which insists on fulfilment of its own conditions.“

§78 “It has become abundantly clear to me that life can flow forward only along the path of the gradient. But there is no energy unless there is a tension of opposites; hence it is necessary to discover the opposite to the attitude of the conscious mind. … Logically, the opposite of love is hate, and of Eros, Phobos (fear); but psychologically it is the will to power. … The one is but the shadow of the other: the man who adopts the standpoint of Eros finds his compensatory opposite in the will to power, and that of the man who puts the accent on power is Eros. …
Life is born only of the spark of opposites.”

The death instinct, 'Thanatos':
§79 “It was a concession to intellectual logic on the one hand and to psychological prejudice on the other that impelled Freud to name the opposite of Eros the destructive or death instinct. For in the first place, Eros is not equivalent to life; but for anyone who thinks it is, the opposite of Eros will naturally appear to be death. And in the second place, we all feel that the opposite of our own highest principle must be purely destructive, deadly, and evil.”

§80 Nominalism v Realism
Platonic v Megariam
Idealism v Materialism

§84 “We can therefore formulate the occurrence as follows: in the introvert the influence of the object produces an inferior extra- version, while in the extravert an inferior introversion takes the place of his social attitude. And so we come back to the proposition from which we started: “The value of the one is the negation of value for the other.”

§85 “Sensitiveness is a sure sign of the presence of inferiority.”

§88 “The neuroses of the young generally come from a collision between the forces of reality and an inadequate, infantile attitude, which from the causal point of view is characterized by an abnormal dependence on the real or imaginary parents, and from the teleological point of view by unrealizable fictions, plans, and aspirations.”

§91 “In a young man, the instinctual forces tied up in the neurosis give him, when released, buoyancy and hope and the chance to extend the scope of his life. To the man in the second half of life the development of the function of opposites lying dormant in the unconscious means a renewal; but this development no longer proceeds via the dissolution of infantile ties, the destruction of infantile illusions and the transference of old imagos to new figures: it proceeds via the problem of opposites.” Emphasis mine

§92 “A psychological theory, if it is to be more than a technical makeshift, must base itself on the principle of opposition; for without this it could only re-establish a neurotically unbalanced psyche. There is no balance, no system of self-regulation, without opposition.

§94 12… Transference is projection, and projection is either there or not there. But it is not necessary. …

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V. The Personal and the Collective (or Transpersonal) Unconscious

§98 “The transference is in itself no more than a projection of unconscious contents.” A projection always starts out as an unconscious identity of subjective content with the object. When that identity is no longer tenable for adaptation and there arises a need to withdrawel the content is it - strictly speaking - so named 'projection'. Otherwise, there it is quite normal to live in a state of 'identity'. As we become conscious the withdrawal of this content becomes necessary and may become an unhealthy projection causing all manner of disturbances. xRef CW6 para. 783

Needs to be read in context with the example Jung is using but the argument around 'personal content' is interesting:
§99 “Such patients often cannot get it into their heads that their fantasies really come from themselves and have little or nothing to do with the character of the doctor. This delusion rests on the fact that there are no personal grounds in the memory for this kind of projection.”

§100 “Generally speaking it is a mythological motif. Many heroes in legend have two mothers …”

§012 ”… when fantasies are produced which no longer rest on personal memories, we have to do with the manifestations of a deeper layer of the unconscious where the primordial images common to humanity lie sleeping. I have called these images or motifs “archetypes, …”

§103 “We have to distinguish between a personal unconscious and an impersonal or transpersonal unconscious. We speak of the latter also as the collective unconscious,4 because it is detached from anything personal and is common to all men, since its contents can be found everywhere, …
The personal unconscious contains lost memories, painful ideas that are repressed (i.e., forgotten on purpose), subliminal perceptions (xRef CW 9ii, para.3-4), by which are meant sense-perceptions that were not strong enough to reach consciousness, and finally, contents that are not yet ripe for consciousness. …“
4The collective unconscious stands for the objective psyche, the personal unconscious for the subjective psyche.

§104 “The primordial images are the most ancient and the most universal “thought-forms” of humanity. They are as much feelings as thoughts; indeed, they lead their own independent life rather in the manner of part-souls,6 (xRef CW 6 para. 797 'soul' = personality) …“
6Cf. ”A Review of the Complex Theory.

§105 “We have now found the object which the libido chooses when it is freed from the personal, infantile form of transference.”

§106-107 Conservation of energy' as discovered by Robert Mayer, an example of an objective psyche content that was brought into consciousness at the right time, right circumstances.
§109 “Only, certain conditions are needed to cause it to appear. These conditions were evidently fulfilled in the case of Robert Mayer.”

§108 “The question now arises: Whence came this new idea that thrust itself upon consciousness with such elemental force? … But if we apply our theory here, the explanation can only be this: the idea of energy and its conservation must be a primordial image that was dormant in the collective unconscious.”

§109 “I have often been asked where the archetypes or primordial images come from. It seems to me that their origin can only be explained by assuming them to be deposits of the constantly repeated experiences of humanity. … What we do find, on the other hand, is the myth of the sun-hero in all its countless variations. It is this myth, and not the physical process, that forms the sun archetype. … We may therefore assume that the archetypes are recurrent impressions made by subjective reactions.11
Not only are the archetypes, apparently, impressions of ever-repeated typical experiences, but, at the same time, they behave empirically like agents that tend towards the repetition of these same experiences. For when an archetype appears in a dream, in a fantasy, or in life, it always brings with it a certain influence or power by virtue of which it either exercises a numinous or a fascinating effect, or impels to action.” Emphasis mine. It is important to note the myth is there a priori.

Transference and the motif of the need for a “God” in the human psyche…whatever that is.
Σ §110 ”… we will proceed to the further discussion of the transference process. … Owing to their (archetypal primordial images) specific energy - for they behave like highly charged autonomous centres of power - they exert a fascinating and possessive influence upon the conscious mind … if the patient is unable to distinguish …these projections, all hope of an understanding is finally lost… But if the patient avoids this Charybdis, he is wrecked on the Scylla of introjecting these images - in other words, he ascribes their … to himself.
In projection, he vacillates between an extravagant and pathological deification of the doctor, and a contempt bristling with hatred. In introjection, he gets involved in a ridiculous self-deification, or else in a moral self-laceration. The mistake he makes in both cases comes from attributing to a person the contents of the collective unconscious. In this way he makes himself or his partner either god or devil….
This is the reason why men have always needed demons and cannot live without gods, … The idea of God is an absolutely necessary psychological function of an irrational nature, which has nothing whatever to do with the question of God's existence….
There is in the psyche some superior power, and if it is not consciously a god, it is the “belly” at least, in St. Paul's words. I therefore consider it wiser to acknowledge the idea of God consciously; for, if we do not, something else is made God, usually something quite inappropriate and stupid such as only an “enlightened” intellect could hatch forth. …
No matter how beautiful and perfect man may believe his reason to be, he can always be certain that it is only one of the possible mental functions, and covers only that one side of the phenomenal world which corresponds to it. But the irrational, that which is not agreeable to reason, rings it about on all sides. And the irrational is likewise a psychological function—in a word, it is the collective unconscious; whereas the rational is essentially tied to the conscious mind.”Emphasis mine.

Σ §111 “Old Heraclitus, who was indeed a very great sage, discovered the most marvellous of all psychological laws: the regulative function of opposites. He called it enantiodromia, a running contrariwise, by which he meant that sooner or later everything runs into its opposite. …
Thus the rational attitude of culture necessarily runs into its opposite, namely the irrational devastation of culture.13
The irrational cannot be and must not be extirpated. The gods cannot and must not die.”

§112 “The only person who escapes the grim law of enantiodromia is the man who knows how to separate himself from the unconscious, not by repressing it - for then it simply attacks him from the rear - but by putting it clearly before him as that which he is not.”

§113 “The patient must learn to differentiate what is ego and what is non-ego, i.e., collective psyche. …
It is essential, in differentiating the ego from the non-ego, that a man should be firmly rooted in his ego-function; that is, he must fulfil his duty to life, so as to be in every respect a viable member of the community. …
we … are confronted with the task of finding a meaning that will enable him to continue living at all - meaning more than blank resignation and mournful retrospect.”

§114 ” Man has two aims: the first is the natural aim, the begetting of children and the business of protecting the brood; to this belongs the acquisition of money and social position. When this aim has been reached a new phase begins: the cultural aim. …
What youth found and must find outside, the man of life's afternoon must find within himself. Here we face new problems which often cause the doctor no light headache.”

§115 “It is of course a fundamental mistake to imagine that when we see the non-value in a value or the untruth in a truth, the value or the truth ceases to exist. It has only become relative. Every- thing human is relative, because everything rests on an inner polarity; for everything is a phenomenon of energy. Energy necessarily depends on a pre-existing polarity, without which there could be no energy. ”

Σ §118 “This happens simply because such modern gnostic systems meet the need for expressing and formulating the wordless occurrences going on within ourselves better than any of the existing forms of Christianity, not excepting Catholicism. The latter is certainly able to express, far more comprehensively than Protestantism, the facts in question through its dogma and ritual symbolism. But neither in the past nor in the present has even Catholicism attained anything like the richness of the old pagan symbolism, which is why this symbolism persisted far into Christianity and then gradually went underground, forming currents that, from the early Middle Ages to modern times, have never quite lost their vitality. …
This is interesting: our propensity to assimilate the Christian myth symbolism in our modern culture is no longer easy: Our consciousness is so saturated with Christianity, so utterly moulded by it, that the unconscious counter-position can discover no foothold there, for the simple reason that it seems too much the antithesis of our ruling ideas. … In the meantime the conflict casts round for appropriate expression in, for instance, the oriental religions—Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism. The syncretism of theosophy goes a long way towards meeting this need, and that explains its numerous successes.”
Footnote 15 Jung talks of Karma

§119 “A typical instance of this kind is the Trinity vision of Brother Nicholas of Flue,17 or again, St. Ignatius' vision of the snake with multiple eyes, …” Just a reference for when Jung draws on these examples.

§120 “… a way must be found that can mediate between conscious and unconscious reality.”

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VI. The Synthetic or Constructive Method

§121 “The process of coming to terms with the unconscious is a true labour, a work which involves both action and suffering. It has been named the “transcendent function”1 because it represents a function based on real and “imaginary/' or rational and irrational, data, thus bridging the yawning gulf between conscious and unconscious. It is a natural process, a manifestation of the energy that springs from the tension of opposites, and it consists in a series of fantasy-occurrences which appear spontaneously in dreams and visions.2

§122 “It (The purely causal and reductive procedure) breaks down at the point where the dream symbols can no longer be reduced to personal reminiscences or aspirations, that is, when the images of the collective unconscious begin to appear. … the fundamental realization that analysis, in so far as it is reduction and nothing more, must necessarily be followed by synthesis, … by the so-called method of amplification.3 The images or symbols of the collective unconscious yield their distinctive values only when subjected to a synthetic mode of treatment.”

§123 The dream of the woman crossing the ford who's foot is then grabbed by the crab.

§128 Analytical (causal-reductive) interpretation: …

§129 “Now, when the analytical or causal-reductive interpretation ceases to bring to light anything new, but only the same thing in different variations, the moment has come to look out for possible archetypal motifs.”

§130 “I have therefore introduced the following terminology: I call every interpretation which equates the dream images with real objects an interpretation on the objective level. In contrast to this is the interpretation which refers every part of the dream and all the actors in it back to the dreamer himself. This I call interpretation on the subjective level. Interpretation on the objective level is analytic, because it breaks down the dream content into memory-complexes that refer to external situations. Interpretation on the subjective level is synthetic, because it detaches the underlying memory-complexes from their external causes, regards them as tendencies or components of the subject, and reunites them with that subject.” Emphasis mine

§131 “Thus the synthetic or constructive process of interpretation is interpretation6 on the subjective level.”
6Cf. “On Psychological Understanding.” Elsewhere I have called this procedure the “hermeneutic” method; cf. infra, pars. 493ff.

§132 The synthetic (constructive) interpretation: …
To make the language of dreams intelligible we need numerous parallels from the psychology of primitive and historical symbolism, …”

§136 “ Fascination is a compulsive phenomenon in the sense that it lacks a conscious motive; it is not a voluntary process, but something that rises up from the unconscious and forcibly obtrudes itself upon the conscious mind.”

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VII. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious

§141 “We are now faced with the task of raising to the subjective level the phenomena which have so far been understood on the objective level. For this purpose we must detach them from the object and take them as symbolical exponents of the patient's subjective complexes.

§142 “Whenever such an element is not to be found in the dreamer himself, experience tells us that it is always projected.”

§149 “Magician and demon are mythological figures which express the unknown, “inhuman” feeling … “
Σ §150 “These attributes always indicate that contents of the trans- personal or collective unconscious are being projected. …
In so far as through our unconscious we have a share in the historical collective psyche, we live naturally and unconsciously in a world of werewolves, demons, magicians, etc., for these are things which all previous ages have invested with tremendous affectivity. … It is therefore absolutely essential to make the sharpest possible demarcation between the personal and the impersonal attributes of the psyche. …
Thus the gods were disposed of. But the corresponding psychological function was by no means disposed of; it lapsed into the unconscious, and men were thereupon poisoned by the surplus of libido that had once been laid up in the cult of divine images. The devaluation and repression of so powerful a function as the religious function naturally have serious consequences for the psychology of the individual. …
This is precisely what the unconscious was after. Its position had been immeasurably strengthened beforehand by the rationalism of modern life, which, by depreciating everything irrational, precipitated the function of the irrational into the unconscious. But once this function finds itself in the unconscious, it works unceasing havoc, like an incurable disease whose focus cannot be eradicated because it is invisible. Individual and nation alike are then compelled to live the irrational in their own lives, …”

§151 “There is nothing for it but to recognize the irrational as a necessary, because ever-present, psychological function, and to take its contents not as concrete realities - that would be a regression! - but as psychic realities, real because they work. … Archetypal images can therefore be taken metaphorically, as intuitive concepts for physical phenomena.”
3As indicated earlier (par. 109), the archetypes may be regarded as the effect and deposit of experiences that have already taken place, but equally they appear as the factors which cause such experiences.

§152 “The devil is a variant of the “shadow” archetype, i.e., of the dangerous aspect of the unrecognized dark half of the personality.”

§155 “The recognition of the archetypes takes us a long step forwards. The magical or daemonic effect emanating from our neighbour disappears when the mysterious feeling is traced back to a definite entity in the collective unconscious. But now we have an entirely new task before us: the question of how the ego is to come to terms with this psychological non-ego. Can we rest content with establishing the real existence of the archetypes, and simply let things take care of themselves?”
Σ §156 “That would be to create a permanent state of dissociation, a split between the individual and the collective psyche. … But such a dissociation requires immediate synthesis and the development of what has remained undeveloped. There must be a union of the two parts; for, failing that, there is no doubt how the matter would be decided: the primitive man would inevitably lapse back into repression. But that union is possible only where a still valid and therefore living religion exists, which allows the primitive man adequate means of expression through a richly developed symbolism. In other words, in its dogmas and rites, this religion must possess a mode of thinking and acting that harks back to the most primitive level. Such is the case in Catholicism, and this is its special advantage as well as its greatest danger.”

Σ §159 “So long as the collective unconscious and the individual psyche are coupled together without being differentiated, no progress can be made … As we have said, the animal symbol points specifically to the extra-human, the transpersonal …
But the energy becomes serviceable again by being brought into play through man's conscious attitude towards the collective un- conscious. The religions have established this cycle of energy in a concrete way by means of ritual communion with the gods. …
…the transcendent function. It is synonymous with progressive development towards a new attitude.” xRef CW 8, Canalization of Libido

On the nature of dreams:
§162 “As against this I have long maintained that we have no right to accuse the dream of, so to speak, a deliberate manoeuvre calculated to deceive. Nature is often obscure or impenetrable, but she is not, like man, deceitful. … The dream itself wants nothing; it is a self-evident content, a plain natural fact”

§166 ”… the solution of the problem of opposites can be reached only irrationally, by way of contributions from the unconscious, i.e., from dreams.”

§167 The dream of the homosexual …this should obviously be read in context with the history of the time.

§171 ”… for nothing is more obstructive to development than persistence in an unconscious - we could also say, a psychically embryonic - state.“

§172 ”… the Church is simply the latest, and specifically Western, form of an instinctive striving that is probably as old as mankind itself. It is a striving that can be found in the most varied forms among all primitive peoples who are in any way developed and have not yet become degenerate: I mean the institution or rite of initiation into manhood.“ Emphasis mine

§184 ”… By “apprehension” I do not mean simply intellectual understanding, but understand- ing through experience. An archetype, as we have said, is a dynamic image, a fragment of the objective psyche, which can be truly understood only if experienced as an autonomous entity.“

§185 ”… I would mention in particular the shadow, the animal, the wise old man, the anima, the animus, the mother, the child, besides an indefinite number of archetypes representative of situations. A special position must be accorded to those archetypes which stand for the goal of the developmental process. …“

§186 “The transcendent function does not proceed without aim and purpose, but leads to the revelation of the essential man. … sometimes forcibly accomplish itself in the face of opposition. The meaning and purpose of the process is the realization, in all its aspects, of the personality originally hidden away in the embryonic germ-plasm; the production and unfolding of the original, potential wholeness. The symbols used by the unconscious to this end are the same as those which mankind has always used to express wholeness, completeness, and perfection: symbols, as a rule, of the quaternity and the circle. For these reasons I have termed this the individuation process.”

§187 ”… As a rule dreams are too feeble and too unintelligible to exercise a radical influence on consciousness. …
The aim of the treatment is therefore to understand and to appreciate, so far as practicable, dreams and all other manifestations of the unconscious,
firstly in order to prevent the formation of an unconscious opposition which becomes more dangerous as time goes on, and
secondly in order to make the fullest possible use of the healing factor of compensation.“ Emphasis mine

§188 “These proceedings naturally rest on the assumption that a man is capable of attaining wholeness, in other words, that he has it in him to be healthy. I mention this assumption because there are without doubt individuals who are not at bottom altogether viable and who rapidly perish if, for any reason, they come face to face with their wholeness. …”

RE Dream interpretation:
§189 ”… Just as the reward of a correct interpretation is an uprush of life, so an incorrect one dooms them to deadlock, resistance, doubt, and mutual desiccation.“

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VIII. General remarks on the therapeutic approach to the Unconscious

§192 “We are greatly mistaken if we think that the unconscious is something harmless that could be made into an object of entertainment, a parlour game. … ”

§194 “Apart from the risks of treatment, the unconscious may also turn dangerous on its own account. One of the commonest forms of danger is the instigating of accidents. … A wrong functioning of the psyche can do much to injure the body, just as conversely a bodily illness can affect the psyche; for psyche and body are not separate entities but one and the same life. Thus there is seldom a bodily ailment that does not show psychic complications, even if it is not psychically caused.”

§195 ”… In all ordinary cases the unconscious is unfavourable or dangerous only because we are not at one with it and therefore in opposition to it. A negative attitude to the unconscious, or its splitting off, is detrimental in so far as the dynamics of the unconscious are identical with instinctual energy.1 Disalliance with the unconscious is synonymous with loss of instinct and rootlessness.

τ §197 “The unconscious is continually active, … It produces, no less than the conscious mind, subliminal combinations that are prospective; only, they are markedly superior to the conscious combinations both in refinement and in scope. For these reasons the unconscious could serve man as a unique guide, provided that he can resist the lure of being misguided.”

Individuation is not for everybody:
§198 “ At all events only those individuals can attain to a higher degree of consciousness who are destined to it and called to it from the beginning, i.e., who have a capacity and an urge for higher differentiation.”

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II. The Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious

PART ONE - The Effects of the Unconscious upon Consciousness

I. The Personal and the Collective Unconscious

§202 “Repression is a process that begins in early childhood under the moral influence of the environment and continues throughout life.”

§204 “We therefore emphatically affirm that
1. in addition to the repressed material
2. the unconscious contains all those psychic components that have fallen below the threshold,
3. as well as subliminal sense-perceptions.
4. Moreover we know, from abundant experience as well as for theoretical reasons, that the unconscious also contains all the material that has not yet reached the threshold of consciousness.
These are the seeds of future conscious contents. Equally we have reason to suppose that the unconscious is never quiescent in the sense of being inactive, but is ceaselessly engaged in grouping and regrouping its contents. This activity should be thought of as completely autonomous only in pathological cases; normally it is co-ordinated with the conscious mind in a compensatory relationship.”
§205 “It is to be assumed that all these contents are of a personal nature in so far as they are acquired during the individual's life. …”

§206 “Nevertheless a successful transference can - at least temporarily - cause the whole neurosis to disappear, and for this reason it has been very rightly recognized by Freud as a healing factor of first-rate importance, but, at the same time, as a provisional state only, for although it holds out the possibility of a cure, it is far from being the cure itself. …”

§210 “Therefore the dream is, properly speaking, a highly objective, natural product of the psyche, from which we might expect indications, or at least hints, about certain basic trends in the psychic process. Now, since the psychic process, like any other life-process, is not just a causal sequence, but is also a process with a ideological orientation, … dreams are nothing less than self-representations of the psychic life-process.”

§213 “Therefore the dreams are obviously reiterating the conscious standpoint minus the conscious criticism, which they completely ignore. They reiterate the conscious contents, not in toto, but insist on the fantastic standpoint as opposed to “sound common sense.”

§214 ”… for there is no truly living thing that does not have a final meaning, that can in other words be explained as a mere left-over from antecedent facts. …
in contrast to conscious criticism, which always seeks to reduce things to human proportions …“ Emphasis mine. This statement needs to be read in context. However, the statement 'human proportions' is important as it defining. We must ask the question then, what are the psychic proportions?…or physical proportions? What is the supra-set?

§216 “The sole criterion for the validity of an hypothesis is whether or not it possesses an heuristic - i.e., explanatory - value. … There is no a priori reason why it should not be just as possible that the unconscious tendencies have a goal beyond the human person, …
From this I realized that the dreams were not just fantasies, but self-representations of unconscious developments which allowed the psyche of the patient gradually to grow out of the pointless personal tie.1
1Cf. the “transcendent function” in Psychological Types, Def. 51, “Symbol.”

Needs to be read in context - the 'unconscious development' is important as it produces the 'control-point'…the symbol that will bring about the change in attitude of the individual.
§217 “This change took place, as I showed, through the unconscious development of a transpersonal control-point; a virtual goal, as it were, that expressed itself symbolically …” Emphasis mine

The Personal Unconscious:
§218 “It should be evident from the foregoing that we have to distinguish in the unconscious a layer which we may call the personal unconscious. The materials contained in this layer are of a personal nature in so far as they have the character partly of acquisitions derived from the individual's life and partly of psychological factors which could just as well be conscious. … We recognize them as personal contents because their effects, or their partial manifestation, or their source can be discovered in our personal past. They are the integral components of the personality, they belong to its inventory, and their loss to consciousness produces an inferiority in one respect or another—an inferiority, moreover, that has the psychological character not so much of an organic lesion or an inborn defect as of a lack which gives rise to a feeling of moral resentment. …
The moral inferiority does not come from a collision with the generally accepted and, in a sense, arbitrary moral law, but from the conflict with one's own self which, for reasons of psychic equilibrium, demands that the deficit be redressed. When- ever a sense of moral inferiority appears, it indicates not only a need to assimilate an unconscious component, but also the possibility of such assimilation. In the last resort it is a man's moral qualities which force him, either through direct recognition of the need or indirectly through a painful neurosis, to assimilate his unconscious self and to keep himself fully conscious. Whoever progresses along this road of self-realization must inevitably bring into consciousness the contents of the personal unconscious, thus enlarging the scope of his personality. I should add at once that this enlargement has to do primarily with one's moral consciousness, one's knowledge of oneself,” Emphasis mine - the 'unconscious self' …what is that? Is it purely related to the personal unconscious content or also content from the collective Unconscious.

The spontaneous presentation of the God image from unconscious material:
Σ §219 ”… we are dealing with a genuine and thoroughly primitive god-image that grew up in the unconscious of a civilized person and produced a living effect—an effect which might well give the psychologist of religion food for reflection. There is nothing about this image that could be called personal: it is a wholly collective image, the ethnic origin of which has long been known to us.”

220 “In view of these facts we must assume that the unconscious contains not only personal, but also impersonal collective components in the form of inherited categories9 or archetypes. I have therefore advanced the hypothesis that at its deeper levels the unconscious possesses collective contents in a relatively active state. That is why I speak of a collective unconscious.”

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II. Phenomena resulting from the Assimilation of the Unconscious

§221 “The process of assimilating the unconscious leads to some very remarkable phenomena.
It produces in some patients an unmistakable and often unpleasant increase of self-confidence …
Others on the contrary feel themselves more and more crushed under the contents of the unconscious, they lose their self-confidence …”

§222 “If we analyse these two modes of reaction more deeply, we find that the optimistic self-confidence of the first conceals a profound sense of impotence, for which their conscious optimism acts as an unsuccessful compensation;
while the pessimistic resignation of the others masks a defiant will to power, far surpassing in cocksureness the conscious optimism of the first type.”

§223 ” … In both cases the relation to the object is reinforced—in the first case in an active, in the second case in a reactive sense. The collective element is markedly accentuated. The one extends the sphere of his action, the other the sphere of his suffering.“

§224 Adler's term of “godlikeness” discussed …

Definitions of inflation:
§227 “I would suggest that we speak instead of “psychic inflation.” The term seems to me appropriate in so far as the state we are discussing involves an extension of the personality beyond individual limits, in other words, a state of being puffed up. In such a state a man fills a space which normally he cannot fill. He can only fill it by appropriating to himself contents and qualities which properly exist for themselves alone and should there- fore remain outside our bounds. What lies outside ourselves belongs either to someone else, or to everyone, or to no one. …
A good example of inflation - the office:
When, therefore, I identify myself with my office or title, 1 behave as though I myself were the whole complex of social factors of which that office consists, or as though I were not only the bearer of the office, but also and at the same time the approval of society.”

§228 The locksmith apprentice

What is a philosopher?
§229 “A man is a philosopher of genius only when he succeeds in transmuting the primitive and merely natural vision into an abstract idea belonging to the common stock of consciousness.”

§230 “There is, however, yet another thing to be learnt from this example, namely that these transpersonal contents are not just inert or dead matter that can be annexed at will. Rather they are living entities which exert an attractive force upon the conscious mind. …”

§233 “Just as one man may disappear in his social role, so another may be engulfed in an inner vision and be lost to his surroundings. Many fathomless transformations of personality, like sudden conversions and other far-reaching changes of mind, originate in the attractive power of a collective image,4 which, as the present example shows, can cause such a high degree of inflation that the entire personality is disintegrated. … The pathological inflation naturally depends on some innate weakness of the personality against the autonomy of collective unconscious contents.”
4 Cf. Psychological Types, Def. 26, “Image.” Leon Daudet, in L'Heredo, calls this process “autofecondation interieure,” by which he means the reawakening of an ancestral soul.

§234 “We shall probably get nearest to the truth if we think of the conscious and personal psyche as resting upon the broad basis of an inherited and universal psychic disposition which is as such unconscious, and that our personal psyche bears the same relation to the collective psyche as the individual to society.” xRef p154, §240

§235 “But equally, just as the individual is not merely a unique and separate being, but is also a social being, so the human psyche is not a self-contained and wholly individual phenomenon, but also a collective one. …
Another example here of Jung's argument towards the collective nature of unconscious content:
This explains, for example, the interesting fact that the unconscious processes of the most widely separated peoples and races show a quite remarkable correspondence, which displays itself, among other things, in the extraordinary but well-authenticated analogies between the forms and motifs of autochthonous myths.
The universal similarity of human brains leads to the universal possibility of a uniform mental functioning. This functioning is the collective psyche. A little bit of physical overlapping with metaphysical in this statement …not quite a sound argument as psyche is not 'human brain'

Consequently, the individual who annexes the unconscious heritage of the collective psyche to what has accrued to him in the course of his ontogenetic development, as though it were part of the latter, enlarges the scope of his personality in an illegitimate way and suffers the consequences.” Emphasis mine. The important part here is assuming it is part of my development as though I am the discoverer and therefore owner of this content. This is where inflation can happen as already mentioned.

§236 “Nature is aristocratic, and one person of value outweighs ten lesser ones. ” This is a fun statement

§237 “If, through assimilation of the unconscious, we make the mistake of including the collective psyche in the inventory of personal psychic functions, a dissolution of the personality into its paired opposites inevitably follows. Besides the pair of opposites already discussed, megalomania and the sense of inferiority, which are so painfully evident in neurosis, there are many others, from which I will single out only the specifically moral pair of opposites, namely good and evil. The specific virtues and vices of humanity are contained in the collective psyche like everything else. …
The contradiction arises only when the personal development of the psyche begins, and when reason discovers the irreconcilable nature of the opposites. The consequence of this discovery is the conflict of repression. We want to be good, and therefore must repress evil; and with that the paradise of the collective psyche comes to an end. Repression of the collective psyche was absolutely necessary for the development of personality.”

§239 “If, however, we approach the problem from the teleological point of view, much that was quite inexplicable becomes clear. …”

§240 ”… “godlikeness” — which completely ignores all differences in the personal psyche … (The feeling of universal validity comes, of course, from the universality of the collective psyche.)
Now moving into the discussion / motif of individuality within the collective and community…
The element of differentiation is the individual. All the highest achievements of virtue, as well as the blackest villainies, are individual. The larger a community is, and the more the sum total of collective factors peculiar to every large community rests on conservative prejudices detrimental to individuality, the more will the individual be morally and spiritually crushed, and, as a result, the one source of moral and spiritual progress for society is choked up. … It is a notorious fact that the morality of society as a whole is in inverse ratio to its size; for the greater the aggregation of individuals, the more the individual factors are blotted out, and with them morality, which rests entirely on the moral sense of the individual and the freedom necessary for this. … The bigger the organization, the more unavoidable is its immorality and blind stupidity (Senatus bestia, senatores boni viri). …
Now, all that I have said here about the influence of society upon the individual is identically true of the influence of the collective unconscious upon the individual psyche.“ xRef §234 above

§241 “The collective instincts and fundamental forms of thinking and feeling whose activity is revealed by the analysis of the unconscious constitute, for the conscious personality, an acquisition which it cannot assimilate without considerable disturbance. It is therefore of the utmost importance in practical treatment to keep the integrity of the personality constantly in mind. For, if the collective psyche is taken to be the personal possession of the individual, it will result in a distortion or an overloading of the personality which is very difficult to deal with. Hence it is imperative to make a clear distinction between personal contents and those of the collective psyche. … individuation10 …“
10Ibid., Def. 29: “Individuation is a process of differentiation, having for its goal the development of the individual personality.”—”As the individual is not just a single, separate being, but by his very existence presupposes a collective relationship, it follows that the process of individuation must lead to more intense and broader collective relationships and not to isolation.”

§242 “Human beings have one faculty which, though it is of the greatest utility for collective purposes, is most pernicious for individuation, and that is the faculty of imitation. … To find out what is truly individual in ourselves, profound reflection is needed; and suddenly we realize how uncommonly difficult the discovery of individuality is.”

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III. The Persona as a segment of the Collective Psyche

§243 “By continuing the analysis we add to the personal consciousness certain fundamental, general, and impersonal characteristics of humanity, thereby bringing about the inflation1 I have just described, which might be regarded as one of the unpleasant consequences of becoming fully conscious.
1… I think that Genesis is right in so far as every step towards greater consciousness is a kind of Promethean guilt: through knowledge, the gods are as it were robbed of their fire, that is, something that was the property of the unconscious powers is torn out of its natural context and subordinated to the whims of the conscious mind. The man who has usurped the new knowledge suffers, however, a transformation or enlargement of consciousness, which no longer resembles that of his fellow men. He has raised himself above the human level of his age (“ye shall become like unto God”), but in so doing has alienated himself from humanity. The pain of this loneliness is the vengeance of the gods, for never again can he return to mankind. He is, as the myth says, chained to the lonely cliffs of the Caucasus, forsaken of God and man.

§244 “From this point of view the conscious personality is a more or less arbitrary segment of the collective psyche. It consists in a sum of psychic facts that are felt to be personal. The attribute “personal” means: pertaining exclusively to this particular person. A consciousness that is purely personal stresses its proprietary and original right to its contents with a certain anxiety, and in this way seeks to create a whole. But all those contents that refuse to fit into this whole are either overlooked and forgotten or repressed and denied. …“
This is quite Gnostic in orientation.

The Persona
§245 “This arbitrary segment of collective psyche—often fashioned with considerable pains—I have called the persona. … If we endeavour to draw a precise distinction between what psychic material should be considered personal, and what impersonal, we soon find ourselves in the greatest dilemma, for by definition we have to say of the persona's contents what we have said of the impersonal unconscious, namely, that it is collective. It is only because the persona represents a more or less arbitrary and fortuitous segment of the collective psyche that we can make the mistake of regarding it in toto as something individual. It is, as its name implies, only a mask of the collective psyche, a mask that feigns individuality, making others and oneself believe that one is individual, whereas one is simply acting a role through which the collective psyche speaks.”

§246 “When we analyse the persona we strip off the mask, and discover that what seemed to be individual is at bottom collective; in other words, that the persona was only a mask of the collective psyche. … Persona it is a compromise between individual and society as to what a man should appear to be.”
Emphasis mine. xRef para. 234: Personal Psyche ↔ Collective Psyche = Individual ↔ Society

§247 ”… despite the exclusive identity of the ego-consciousness with the persona the unconscious self, one's real individuality, is always present and makes itself felt indirectly if not directly. … the unconscious self can never be repressed to the point of extinction. Its influence is chiefly manifest in the special nature of the contrasting and compensating contents of the unconscious. The purely personal attitude of the conscious mind evokes reactions on the part of the unconscious, and these, together with personal repressions, contain the seeds of individual development in the guise of collective fantasies. … ” Emphasis mine.
Unconscious Self: xRef para. 217; 'Unconscious Development'. Is the Unconscious Development related to the Unconscious Self?
'Collective Fantasies': Why collective?

“Through the analysis of the personal unconscious, the conscious mind becomes suffused with collective material which brings with it the elements of individuality.” Implication being that our individuality lies in the unconscious.

τ Ω §250 “Once the personal repressions are lifted, the individuality and the collective psyche begin to emerge in a coalescent state, thus releasing the hitherto repressed personal fantasies.” Emphasis mine. xRef para. 247 How do the 'personal fantasies' relate to the 'collective fantasies' mentioned above.
“The fantasies and dreams which now appear assume a somewhat different aspect. An infallible sign of collective images seems to be the appearance of the “cosmic” element, i.e., the images in the dream or fantasy are connected with cosmic qualities, such as temporal and spatial infinity, enormous speed and extension of movement, “astrological” associations, telluric, lunar, and solar analogies, changes in the proportions of the body, etc. … The collective element is very often announced by peculiar symptoms,2 as for example by dreams where the dreamer is flying through space like a comet, or feels that he is the earth, or the sun, or a star; or else is of immense size, or dwarfishly small; or that he is dead, …” Underline mine

§251 “One result of the dissolution of the persona is a release of involuntary fantasy, which is apparently nothing else than the specific activity of the collective psyche. … ” The motif of Fate and the conscious mind being subject to the unconscious.

§252 “In by far the greater number, adaptation to external reality demands so much work that inner adaptation to the collective unconscious cannot be considered for a very long time. But when this inner adaptation becomes a problem, a strange, irresistible attraction proceeds from the unconscious and exerts a powerful influence on the conscious direction of life.”

§253 “Hence I regard the loss of balance as purposive, since it replaces a defective consciousness by the automatic and instinctive activity of the unconscious, which is aiming all the time at the creation of a new balance and will moreover achieve this aim, provided that the conscious mind is capable of assimilating the contents produced by the unconscious, i.e., of understanding and digesting them.”

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IV. Negative Attempts to free the Individuality from the Collective Psyche

a. Regressive Restoration of the Persona

§254 “A collapse of the conscious attitude is no small matter. It always feels like the end of the world, as though everything had tumbled back into original chaos. … In reality, however, one has fallen back upon the collective unconscious, which now takes over the leadership.” Underline mine
“But once the unconscious contents break through into consciousness, filling it with their uncanny power of conviction, the question arises of how the individual will react.
(1) Will he be overpowered by these contents? - The first case signifies paranoia or schizophrenia;
(2) Will he credulously accept them? - the second may either become an eccentric with a taste for prophecy, or he may revert to an infantile attitude and be cut off from human society;
(3) Or will he reject them? - the third signifies the regressive restoration of the persona.
(4) (I am disregarding the ideal reaction, namely critical understanding.)”
Paragraph re-arrangement mine to show presentation and answer for ease.
“He will as a result of his fright have slipped back to an earlier phase of his personality; he will have demeaned himself, pretending that he is as he was before the crucial experience, though utterly unable even to think of repeating such a risk. Formerly perhaps he wanted more than he could accomplish; now he does not even dare to attempt what he has it in him to do.”

§257 “As already mentioned, this taught me something extraordinarily important, namely the existence of an unconscious self-regulation. Not only can the unconscious “wish,” it can also cancel its own wishes. This realization, of such immense importance for the integrity of the personality, must remain sealed to anyone who cannot get over the idea that it is simply a question of infantilism. …
Rather than face the conflict he will turn back and, as best he can, regressively restore his shattered persona, discounting all those hopes and expectations that had blossomed under the transference.”
Then my favourite quote from Faust:

§258 “Only one thing is effective against the unconscious, and that is hard outer necessity. (Those with rather more knowledge of the unconscious will see behind the outer necessity the same face which once gazed at them from within.) An inner necessity can change into an outer one, and so long as the outer necessity is real, and not just faked, psychic problems remain more or less ineffective. … But once he has seen the Faustian problem, the escape into the “simple life” is closed for ever. … But his soul laughs at the deception. Only what is really oneself has the power to heal.”
We can never 'un-know' something, we can't un-see. Innocence lost is a one time event and we can never go back.

§259 “The regressive restoration of the persona is a possible course only for the man who owes the critical failure of his life to his own inflatedness.”

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b. Identification with the Collective Psyche

§260 “The second way leads to identification with the collective psyche. This would amount to an acceptance of inflation, but now exalted into a system. … Everybody would like to hold fast to this renewal: one man because it enhances his life-feeling, another because it promises a rich harvest of knowledge, a third because he has discovered the key that will transform his whole life. … This piece of mysticism is innate in all better men as the “longing for the mother,” the nostalgia for the source from which we came.”

§264 “For, just as the prophet is a primordial image from the collective psyche, so also is the disciple of the prophet.”

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PART TWO - INDIVIDUATION

I. The Function of the Unconscious

§266 ”

§267 “The idiosyncrasy of an individual is not to be understood as any strangeness in his substance or in his components, but rather as a unique combination, or gradual differentiation, of functions and faculties which in themselves are universal.”

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II. Anima and Animus

III. The Technique of Differentiation between the Ego and the figures of the Unconscious

§341 ”… the … transformation and dissolution of the autonomous complex.
Ω §342 “This transformation is the aim of the analysis of the unconscious. (xRef. para. 360, 387) If there is no transformation, it means that the determining influence of the unconscious is unabated, and that it will in some cases persist in
(1) maintaining neurotic symptoms in spite of all our analysis and all our understanding.
(2) Alternatively, a compulsive transference will take hold, which is just as bad as a neurosis.
… to deal fundamentally with the unconscious, to come to a real settlement with it. This is of course something very different from interpretation. … in the case of a real settlement it is not a question of interpretation: it is a question of releasing unconscious processes and letting them come into the conscious mind in the form of fantasies. …
In many cases it may be quite important for the patient to have some idea of the meaning of the fantasies produced. But it is of vital importance that he should experience them to the full …
…the doctor should assiduously guard against clever feats of interpretation. For the important thing is not to interpret and understand the fantasies, but primarily to experience them. …
By “human” experience I mean that the person … should not just be included passively in the vision, but that he should face the figures of the vision actively and reactively, with full consciousness. …
a real settlement with the unconscious demands a firmly opposed conscious standpoint.”
Emphasis mine. The fact that experience is so important aligns with the energic theory that the image itself, the symbol, the fantasy as a symbol, contains energy and can in itself create the necessary environment for a change in attitude. See next para. 343, para. 350 and para. 358

§343 “Libido can never be apprehended except in a definite form; that is to say, it is identical with fantasy-images. And we can only release it from the grip of the unconscious by bringing up the corresponding fantasy-images.”

§347 When I do not posses a refined understanding or use of a particular function, the unconscious then has it…i.e., it is unconscious to me, it belongs to the unconscious. See paragraph 359

§348 “Now this is the direct opposite of succumbing to a mood, which is so typical of neurosis. It is no weakness, no spineless surrender, but a hard achievement, the essence of which consists in keeping your objectivity despite the temptations of the mood, and in making the mood your object, instead of allowing it to become in you the dominating subject. So the patient must try to get his mood to speak to him; his mood must tell him all about itself and show him through what kind of fantastic analogies it is expressing itself.”

§350 “But this effort is not enough, for the fantasy, to be completely experienced, demands not just perception and passivity, but active participation. … i.e., assigning absolute reality value to the unconscious.”

§352 “In other words, we must not concretize our fantasies.”
§353 “Something works behind the veil of fantastic images, whether we give this something a good name or a bad. It is something real, and for this reason its manifestations must be taken seriously.”

§355 “Of the essence of things, of absolute being, we know nothing. But we experience various effects: from “outside” by way of the senses, from “inside” by way of fantasy. ”

§357 “If the patient were himself to participate actively in the way described above, he would possess himself of the libido invested in the fantasy, and would thus gain added influence over the unconscious.”

§358 “Continual conscious realization of unconscious fantasies, together with active participation in the fantastic events, has … the effect
firstly of extending the conscious horizon by the inclusion of numerous unconscious contents;
secondly of gradually diminishing the dominant influence of the unconscious; and
thirdly of bringing about a change of personality.”

§359 “Conscious realization and experience of fantasies assimilates the unconscious inferior functions to the conscious mind—a process which is naturally not without far-reaching effects on the conscious attitude.”

§360 “I have called this change, which is the aim of our analysis of the unconscious, the transcendent function. <Fc green>(xRef. para. 342m 387)</fc> This remarkable capacity of the human psyche for change, expressed in the transcendent function, is the principal object of late medieval alchemical philosophy, where it was expressed in terms of alchemical symbolism. …
The secret of alchemy was in fact the transcendent function, the transformation of personality through the blending and fusion of the noble with the base components, of the differentiated with the inferior functions, of the conscious with the unconscious.” Emphasis mine.

§365 “It may not be immediately apparent what is meant by a “mid-point of the personality.” I will therefore try to outline this problem in a few words. If we picture the conscious mind, with the ego as its centre, as being opposed to the unconscious, and if we now add to our mental picture the process of assimilating the unconscious, we can think of this assimilation as a kind of approximation of conscious and unconscious, where the centre of the total personality no longer coincides with the ego, but with a point midway between the conscious and the unconscious. … I have no theory as to what constitutes the nature of these processes. One would first have to know what constitutes the nature of the psyche. I am content simply to state the facts.”

§366 The vision of the circle of stones on a hilltop.

§368 “The result is ascension in the flame, transmutation in the alchemical heat, the genesis of the “subtle spirit.” That is the transcendent function born of the union of opposites.”

§369 “Fantasies are no substitute for living; they are fruits of the spirit which fall to him who pays his tribute to life.
(Must be read in context) The woman's incubus consists of a host of masculine demons; the man's succubus is a vampire.”

§373 “Here one may ask, perhaps, why it is so desirable that a man should be individuated. …”

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IV. The Mana Personality

§374 “My initial material for the discussion that now follows is taken from cases where the condition that was presented in the previous chapter as the immediate goal has been achieved, namely the conquest of the anima as an autonomous complex, and her transformation into a function of relationship between the conscious and the unconscious. … Through this process the anima forfeits the daemonic power of an autonomous complex; she can no longer exercise the power of possession, since she is depotentiated. … but a psychological function of an intuitive nature, akin to what the primitives mean when they say, “He has gone into the forest to talk with the spirits” or “My snake spoke with me” or, in the mythological language of infancy, “A little bird told me.”” Italics mine

§376 “Now when the anima loses her mana, what becomes of it? Clearly the man who has mastered the anima acquires her mana, in accordance with the primitive belief that when a man kills the mana-person he assimilates his mana into his own body.”
See para. 382, xRef wiki for use of mana, particularly libido. CW5 mana personality = hero. The male hero here seems to be the Senex, the female hero the great mother

§377 “Thus the ego becomes a mana-personality. …” No it doesn't. xRef para. 380

§378 “… for by inflating the conscious mind it can destroy everything that was gained by coming to terms with the anima. It is therefore of no little practical importance to know that in the hierarchy of the unconscious the anima occupies the lowest rank, only one of many possible figures, and that her subjection constellates another collective figure which now takes over her mana. Actually it is the figure of the magician, as I will call it for short, who attracts the mana to himself, i.e., the autonomous valency of the anima.”

§380 “…it is a question of inflation. …
Hence we must conclude that the ego never conquered the anima at all and therefore has not acquired the mana. All that has happened is a new adulteration, this time with a figure of the same sex corresponding to the father-imago, and possessed of even greater power.”

§381 “It was a delusion: the conscious mind has not become master of the unconscious, and the anima has forfeited her tyrannical power only to the extent that the ego was able to come to terms with the unconscious. This accommodation, however, was not a victory of the conscious over the unconscious, but the establishment of a balance of power between the two worlds.” Italics mine.

§382 The motif of the desired mid-point.

§384 The mofif of initiation.

§385 “The fact is that the whole symbolism of initiation rises up, clear and unmistakable, in the unconscious contents. … The point is not - I cannot be too emphatic about this - whether the initiation symbols are objective truths, but whether these unconscious contents are or are not the equivalents of initiation practices, and whether they do or do not influence the human psyche. Nor is it a question of whether they are desirable or not. It is enough that they exist and that they work.”

§386 “When the conscious mind participates actively and experiences each stage of the process, or at least understands it intuitively, then the next image always starts off on the higher level that has been won, and purposiveness develops.”

§387 “The immediate goal of the analysis of the unconscious <Fc green>(xRef. para. 360, 342)</fc>, therefore, is to reach a state where the unconscious contents no longer remain unconscious and no longer express themselves indirectly as animus and anima phenomena; that is to say, a state in which animus and anima become functions of relationship to the unconscious. So long as they are not this, they are autonomous complexes, disturbing factors that break through the conscious control and act like true “disturbers of the peace.” … But if such a man makes himself conscious of his unconscious contents, as they appear firstly in the factual contents of his personal unconscious, and then in the fantasies of the collective unconscious, he will get to the roots of his complexes, and in this way rid himself of his possession.” Italics and emphasis mine.

§388 “I therefore call such a personality simply the mana-personality. It corresponds to a dominant of the collective unconscious, to an archetype which has taken shape in the human psyche through untold ages of just that kind of experience.”

§389 “Historically, the mana-personality evolves into the hero and the godlike being,5 whose earthly form is the priest. …
And so it will be, unless consciousness puts an end to the naive concretization of primordial images. I do not know whether it is desirable that consciousness should alter the eternal laws; I only know that occasionally it does alter them, … It is indeed hard to see how one can escape the sovereign power of the primordial images.”
§390 “Actually I do not believe it can be escaped. … “
§391 “The dissolution of the anima means that we have gained insight into the driving forces of the unconscious, but not that we have made these forces ineffective. ”

§392 “What I mean is more like an error in psychic diet which upsets the equilibrium of my digestion. …” The motif of psychic equilibrium

The Mana-personality described…

Σ §393 “In differentiating the ego from the archetype of the mana-personality one is now forced, exactly as in the case of the anima, to make conscious those contents which are specific of the mana-personality. … Conscious realization of the contents composing it means, for the man, the second and real liberation from the father, and, for the woman, liberation from the mother, and with it comes the first genuine sense of his or her true individuality. This part of the process corresponds exactly to the aim of the concretistic primitive initiations up to and including baptism, namely, severance from the “carnal” (or animal) parents, and rebirth in novam infantiam, into a condition of immortality and spiritual childhood, as formulated by certain mystery religions of the ancient world, among them Christianity.”

The mana-personality is either found internally or projected outward. When projected outward it is often handed over to God.
Σ §394 “It is now quite possible that, instead of identifying with the mana-personality, one will concretize it as an extramundane “Father in Heaven,” … The logical result is that the only thing left behind here is a miserable, inferior, worthless, and sinful little heap of humanity.”
6“Absolute” means “cut off,” “detached.” To assert that God is absolute amounts to placing him outside all connection with mankind. …

Identification of the man-personality to religion

§395 “On psychological grounds, therefore, I would recommend that no God be constructed out of the archetype of the mana-personality. In other words, he must not be concretized, for only thus can I avoid projecting my values and non-values into God and Devil, and only thus can I preserve my human dignity, my specific gravity, which I need so much if I am not to become the unresisting shuttlecock of unconscious forces.”

§396 “The mana-personality is on one side a being of superior wisdom, on the other a being of superior will. By making conscious the contents that underlie this personality, we find ourselves obliged to face the fact that we have learnt more and want more than other people. This uncomfortable kinship with the gods, as we know, struck so deep into poor Angelus Silesius' bones …”

A fantastic image for the reality of life:
§397 “Nothing can argue the reality of the world out of existence, there is no miraculous way round it. Similarly, nothing can argue the effects of the unconscious out of existence. … Therefore we stand with our soul suspended between formidable influences from within and from without, and somehow we must be fair to both.”

§398 “Thus the dissolution of the mana-personality through conscious assimilation of its contents leads us, by a natural route, back to ourselves as an actual, living something, poised between two world-pictures and their darkly discerned potencies.”

§399 “I have called this centre the self. Intellectually the self is no more than a psychological concept, a construct that serves to ex- press an unknowable essence which we cannot grasp as such, since by definition it transcends our powers of comprehension.”

Σ §400 “When, therefore, we make use of the concept of a God we are simply formulating a definite psychological fact, namely the independence and sovereignty of certain psychic contents which express themselves by their power to thwart our will, to obsess our consciousness and to influence our moods and actions.”

§401 “Here I am alluding to a problem that is far more significant than these few simple words would seem to suggest: mankind is, in essentials, psychologically still in a state of childhood—a stage that cannot be skipped. The vast majority needs authority, guidance, law.”

§405 “Sensing the self as something irrational, as an indefinable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subjected, but merely attached, and about which it revolves very much as the earth revolves round the sun — thus we come to the goal of individuation. I use the word “sensing” in order to indicate the apperceptive character of the relation between ego and self. In this relation nothing is knowable, because we can say nothing about the contents of the self. The ego is the only content of the self that we do know. The individuated ego senses itself as the object of an unknown and supraordinate subject. … ”

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Appendices

The square brackets are text that on revision Jung deleted. For more detail see the footnote at the start of the essay. This essay was written quite early on in Jung and Friends collaboration so there is a alignment with Freud's ideas and no small amount of reverence for Freud as an individual.

I. New Paths in Psychology

§413 ”… He could see everything with the exception of people's heads. Thus he sees — and does not see. From a large number of like experiences it has long been concluded that only the conscious mind of the patient does not see and hear, but that the sense-function is otherwise in working order. xRef this with CW8, para 367 where the 'organ' of consciousness is discussed.

§414 ”… the Breuer case. … The patient devised the appropriate name “talking cure”“

§417 Talking about the case of Breuer patient - whose arm fell asleep and had symptomatic aphasia, Jung presents the question; 'why her?' The answer as he puts it: ”“The x in the calculation is predisposition.” One is just “predisposed” that way. But for Freud the problem was: what constitutes the predisposition?“

§418 ”… failure to react to an apparent shock can frequently be observed. Hence it necessarily follows that the intensity of a trauma has very little pathogenic significance in itself; everything depends on the particular circumstances.“

§419 ”… it had become clear with increasing experience that in all the cases analysed so far, there existed, apart from the traumatic experiences, another, special class of disturbance which can only be described as a disturbance in the province of love.
With this discovery Freud's views underwent a considerable change. If, more or less under the spell of Breuer's trauma theory, he had formerly sought the cause of the neurosis in traumatic experiences, now the centre of gravity of the problem shifted to an entirely different point.“

§422 “So once more we return to our original question, namely, whence comes the pathological (i.e., peculiar or exaggerated) nature of the reaction to the trauma? … we conjectured that in this case too there must be, in addition to the trauma, a disturbance in the erotic sphere. … the ostensible cause of the illness, is no more than an occasion for something previously not conscious to manifest itself, i.e., an important erotic conflict. Accordingly the trauma loses its pathogenic significance and is replaced by a much deeper and more comprehensive conception which sees the pathogenic agent as an erotic conflict. [This conception might be called the sexual theory of neurosis.]”

§423 ”… why should the erotic conflict be the cause of the neurosis rather than any other conflict? To this we can only answer: no one asserts that it must be so, but in point of fact it [always] is so [, notwithstanding all the cousins and aunts, parents, godparents, and teachers who rage against it]. In spite of all indignant protestations to the contrary, the fact remains that love,8 its problems and its conflicts, is of fundamental importance in human life, and, as careful inquiry consistently shows, is of far greater significance than the individual suspects.“
8Using the word in the wider sense which belongs to it by right and embraces more than sexuality.
These early essays show how Jung was more aligned with Freud in the early days. Not so much with sexuality perhaps but certainly with Eros as complex of overwhelming influence in psychological life above all other complexes.

§424 “The trauma theory has therefore been abandoned as antiquated; for with the discovery that not the trauma but a hidden erotic conflict is the [true] root of the neurosis, the trauma completely loses its pathogenic significance.”

§425 “If we formulate these facts theoretically, we arrive at the following result: there are in a neurosis two [erotic] tendencies standing in strict opposition to one another, one of which at least is unconscious. …”

§426 “If this kind reader should happen himself to be somewhat nervous, the mere suggestion will arouse his indignation; for we are all accustomed, through our education at school and at home, to cross ourselves three times when we meet words like “erotic” and “sexual” …”

§427 “The growth of culture consists, as we know, in a progressive subjugation of the animal in man. It is a process of domestication which cannot be accomplished without rebellion on the part of the animal nature that thirsts for freedom. … ” He goes on to discuss the sexual freedoms and questions of an epoch…specifically, our time. “This is discussed by men and women who challenge the existing sexual morality and who seek to throw off the burden of moral guilt which past centuries have heaped upon Eros.”

§428 Seems a little dated. Although I can't help but agree with him to some degree I feel there is a new challenge that faces us in the current climate of work and work environments. Now the frontier, without the “alternating rhythm of work” - is something that is in our intellect more, and is ironically pushing us inwards whether we like it or not.
He then goes off and suddenly we're transported to 1917.

Ω §429 “Let us reckon up the many sources of discontent: the denial of continual procreation and giving birth, for which purpose nature has endowed us with vast quantities of energy; the monotony of our highly differentiated methods of labour, which exclude any interest in the work itself; our effortless security against war, lawlessness, robbery, plague, child and female mortality - all this gives a sum of surplus energy which needs must find an outlet. But how? Relatively few create quasi-natural dangers for themselves in reckless sport; many more, seeking for some equivalent of the hard life in order to siphon off dangerous accumulations of energy that might burst out even more crazily, are driven to alcoholic excess, or expend themselves in the rush of money-making, or in the frenzied performance of duties, or in perpetual overwork.” Emphasis mine. Although a little dated I most interested in this paragraph on account of Jung's reference to extreme (reckless as he puts it) sport.

§430 “But man possesses in the unconscious a fine flair for the spirit of his time; he divines his possibilities and feels in his heart the instability of present-day morality, no longer supported by living religious conviction. Here is the source of most of our [erotic] conflicts. The urge to freedom beats upon the weakening barriers of morality: we are in a state of temptation, we want and do not want. And because we want and yet cannot think out what it is we really want, the [erotic] conflict is largely unconscious, and thence comes neurosis. Neurosis, therefore, is intimately bound up with the problem of our time and really represents an unsuccessful attempt on the part of the individual to solve the general problem in his own person. Neurosis is self-division. … (Extremes should therefore be avoided as far as possible, because they always arouse suspicion of their opposite.)”

§432 “The more penetrating method is that of dream-analysis, discovered by [the genius of Sigmund] Freud.” As the square brackets indicate, Jung retracted some of his reverence after the breakup with Freud.

§434 “From the analytical study of the dream it was found that the dream, as it appears to us, is only a facade which conceals the interior of the house. … These (Associations grouped around particular topics) appear to be of personal significance and yield a meaning which … careful comparison has shown, stands in an extremely delicate and meticulously exact [symbolic] relation to the dream facade.12 This particular complex of ideas, wherein are united all the threads of the dream, is the conflict we are looking for, or rather a variation of it conditioned by circumstances. …
It's important to distinguish between the manifest and the latent content of the dream.”
12[The rules of dream analysis, the laws governing the structure of the dream, and its symbolism together form almost a science, or at any rate one of the most important chapters of the psychology of the unconscious and one requiring particularly arduous study.]

para's 434 and 435 mention dreams as personally important wish fulfilment. Jung clearly modified his ideas later on. Keeping in mind this essay was first written 1912. His writing is a little inflated even.

This remains very true:
§436 “But when at last we penetrate to its real meaning, we find ourselves deep in the dreamer's secrets and discover with astonishment that an apparently quite senseless dream is in the highest degree significant, and that in reality it speaks only of extraordinarily important and serious things of the soul.”

§437 “As Freud says, dream-analysis is the via regia (the royal highway) to the unconscious. … Psychoanalysis, considered as a therapeutic technique, consists in the main of numerous dream-analyses. … Only through the mystery of self-sacrifice can a man find himself anew.”

§438 It seems the topic of love as an antecedent to neurosis has been covered, now Jung moves onto society and the collective: “We always find in the patient a conflict which at a certain point is connected with the great problems of society. Hence, when the analysis is pushed to this point, the apparently individual conflict of the patient is revealed as a universal conflict of his environment and epoch. Neurosis is thus nothing less than an individual attempt, however unsuccessful, to solve a universal problem; indeed it cannot be otherwise, for a general problem, a “question,” is not an ens per se, but exists only in the hearts of individuals. …and we're back to sex: …the “sexual” question, or more precisely, the problem of present-day sexual morality.
The neurotic has the soul of a child who bears ill with arbitrary restrictions whose meaning he does not see; he tries to make this morality his own, but falls into profound division and disunity with himself: one side of him wants to suppress, the other longs to be free - and this struggle goes by the name of neurosis. Were the conflict clearly conscious in all its parts, it would never give rise to neurotic symptoms; …”

§439 “It is under all circumstances an advantage to be in full possession of one's personality, otherwise the repressed portions of the personality will only crop up as a hindrance elsewhere, not just at some unimportant point, but at the very spot where we are most sensitive: this worm always rots the core. (Even though its in the square brackets, I like this:) [Instead of waging war on himself it is surely better for a man to learn to tolerate himself, and to convert his inner difficulties into real experiences instead of expending them in useless fantasies. Then at least he lives, and does not waste his life in fruitless struggles.] …”

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II. The Structure of the Unconscious

Footnote 1: ”[ First delivered as a lecture to the Zurich School for Analytical Psychology, 1916, …“

It is worth noting that there is a lot in this paper that was later changed or evolved by Jung
1. The Distinction between Personal and the Impersonal Unconscious

Jung's departure from Freud is immediately evident in the second paragraph:
§443 “In Freud's view, as most people know, the contents of the unconscious are reducible to infantile tendencies which are repressed because of their incompatible character.” xRef para 438 above where Jung almost preaches the concept of child like perspective and now takes a more critical stance to this view. This paragraph is a succinct summary of the previous essay: New Paths in Psychology. Now his view is:
§444 ”… Although from one point of view the infantile tendencies of the unconscious are the most conspicuous, it would none the less be a mistake to de- fine or evaluate the unconscious entirely in these terms. The unconscious has still another side to it: it includes not only repressed contents, but also all psychic material that lies below the threshold of consciousness. …
It is impossible to explain the sub- liminal nature of all this material on the principle of repression, for in that case the removal of repression ought to endow a per- son with a prodigious memory which would thenceforth forget nothing. No doubt repression plays a part, but it is not the only factor. If what we call a bad memory were always only the result of repression, those who enjoy an excellent memory ought never to suffer from repression, nor in consequence be neurotic.“

τ §445 “We therefore affirm that in addition to the repressed material the unconscious contains all those psychic components that have fallen below the threshold, as well as subliminal sense-perceptions. … Equally we have every reason to suppose that the unconscious is never quiescent in the sense of being inactive, but presumably is ceaselessly engaged in the grouping and regrouping of so-called unconscious fantasies. This activity should be thought of as relatively autonomous only in pathological cases; normally it is co-ordinated with consciousness in a compensatory relationship.” xRef with para 362 in Nature of the Psyche CW8

§446 Presents discussion about potentially 'exhausting' or rendering the unconscious mute by way of analysing all the content or bring all repression to consciousness. ”… We urge our patients to hold fast to repressed contents that have been re-associated with consciousness, and to assimilate them into their plan of life. But this procedure, as we may daily convince ourselves, makes no impression on the unconscious, since it calmly goes on producing apparently the same infantile-sexual fantasies which, according to the earlier theory, should be the effects of personal repressions.“

§447 There is an interesting comment about unconscious content and how it appears: ”… expressed in a language that is universally valid.“ It strikes me as crucial that much of what Jung did was to present unconscious content in a language that is universally valid, or, elucidated. This is rare and what makes Jung so valuable - not the content because that was always there. Rather, it is his gift of investigation and elucidation. This idea continues in the next paragraph…
§448 ”… It would, however, be wrong to attribute to the philosopher, by exaggerating the value of his achievement, the additional merit of having actually created or invented the vision itself. It is a primordial idea that grows up quite as naturally in the philosopher and is simply a part of the common property of mankind, in which, in principle, everyone has a share. The golden apples drop from the same tree, whether they be gathered by a lock- smith's apprentice or by a Schopenhauer.“

§449 ”… It should be evident from the foregoing that we have to distinguish in the unconscious a layer which we may call the personal unconscious. The contents of this layer are of a personal nature in so far as they have the character partly of acquisitions derived from the individual's life and partly of psychological factors4 which could just as well be conscious.“
4For instance, repressed wishes or tendencies that are incompatible with the moral or aesthetic sentiments of the subject.

§450 “It can readily be understood that incompatible psychological elements are liable to repression and therefore become unconscious. … They are integral components of the personality, they belong to its inventory, and their loss to consciousness produces an inferiority in one respect or another. This inferiority has the psychological character not so much of an organic lesion or an inborn defect as of a lack which gives rise to a feeling of moral resentment. … The moral inferiority does not come from a collision with the generally accepted and, in a sense, arbitrary moral law, but from the conflict with one's own self, which for reasons of psychic equilibrium demands that the deficit be redressed.” Is this to do with feeling intensity and judgement. Feeling being one of the rational functions.
”… In the last resort it is a man's moral qualities which force him, either through direct recognition of the need or indirectly through a painful neurosis, to assimilate his unconscious self and keep himself fully conscious. Whoever progresses along this path of self-realization must inevitably bring into consciousness the contents of his personal unconscious, thus enlarging considerably the scope of his personality.“ Perhaps the moral aspect is most applicable to personal unconscious contents.

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2. Phenomena Resulting from the Assimilation of the Unconscious

§451 Inflation

§455 Jung continues the discussion on inflation - although he doesn't use that term. He goes on to discuss the conflict between personal and collective; “And just as certain social functions or instincts are opposed to the egocentric interests of the individual, so certain functions or tendencies of the human mind are opposed, by their collective nature, to the personal mental functions.6
There is then a jump to the collective unconscious content: “But, inasmuch as human brains are uniformly differentiated, the mental functioning thereby made possible is collective and universal.”

§456 “The universal similarity of human brains leads to the universal possibility of a uniform mental functioning. This functioning is the collective psyche. This can be subdivided into the collective mind and the collective soul.7 To borrow an expression from Pierre Janet, the collective psyche comprises the parties inferieures of the mental functions, that is to say those deep-rooted, well-nigh automatic portions of the individual psyche which are inherited and are to be found everywhere, and are thus impersonal or suprapersonal. Consciousness plus the personal unconscious constitutes the parties superieures of the mental functions, those portions, therefore, that are developed ontogenetically and acquired as a result of personal differentiation.”
7By the collective mind I mean collective thinking;
by the collective soul collective feeling; and by the collective psyche the collective psychological functions as a whole.
This paper was written 1916. xRef Jung's use of Janet's terms in CW8, para 374, 375 which was published much later in 1946.

Continues with the discussion of what happens as one assimilates unconscious content. We seem to have now a list of pitfalls when assimilating unconscious content;

Inflation §457 “Consequently, the individual who annexes the unconscious heritage of the collective psyche to what has accrued to him in the course of his ontogenetic development enlarges the scope of his personality in an illegitimate way and suffers the consequences. …”

Identification with the Self §458 “If, through assimilation of the unconscious, we make the mistake of including the collective psyche in the inventory of personal mental functions, a dissolution of the personality into its paired opposites inevitably follows. …
It is different for the primitive however; For the primitive, whose personal differentiation is, as we know, only just beginning, both judgments are true, because his mentality is essentially collective. He is still more or less identical with the collective psyche, and for that reason shares equally in the collective virtues and vices without any personal attribution and without inner contradiction.
For modern man it is a problem; The contradiction arises only when the personal development of the mind begins, and when reason discovers the irreconcilable nature of the opposites.”

§459 “Repression of the collective psyche was absolutely necessary for the development of the personality, since collective psychology and personal psychology exclude one another up to a point. … A collective attitude is always a threat to the individual, even when it is a necessity. … The damage done to the personality is compensated - for everything is compensated in psychology - by a compulsive union and unconscious identity with the collective psyche.” (Emphasis mine)

§461 “The worst abuses of this kind can be avoided by a clear understanding and appreciation of the fact that there are differently oriented psychological types… Due regard for the individuality of another is not only advisable but absolutely essential in analysis if the development of the patient's personality is not to be stifled. …”

§462 “The collective instincts and fundamental forms of think- ing and feeling brought to light by analysis of the unconscious constitute, for the conscious personality, an acquisition which it cannot assimilate completely without injury to itself.8 …“
It's worth noting Jung's style of using certain nouns as adverbs. He does this for example with psychoid in CW 8. Here in footnote 8 he says 'collectivistic character' to indicate an attitude that see the collective perspective but is not in itself collective…and thus quite healthy to the process of individuation.
Important note at the end of footnote 8;

8 … [This theme was greatly developed in Psychological Types, where the identification of thinking with introversion and feeling with extraversion was given up. Editors.]
Interesting how Jung had first focused on the rational functions in his early papers.

§463 The faculty of 'imitation'. Something Jung does not use in any significant capacity in other papers. Still, an interesting paragraph.

3. The Persona as a Segment of the Collective Psyche

§464 9… On account of his (The neurotic) quite peculiar sensibility, the latter participates to a greater extent in the life of the unconscious than does the normal person.

§465 Jung talks here of the 'collective psyche' as regards the persona…I've not heard that before.

§466 This is a little rushed but nonetheless relevant
“When we analyse the persona we strip off the mask, and discover that what seemed to be individual is at bottom collective. We thus trace the “petty god of this world” back to his origin in the universal god who is a personification of the collective psyche. … ”

§467..468 It's almost as though he is talking about himself.

§470 He mentions Alienation for Analysis …you can see how old this essay is.

4. Attempts to Free the Individuality from the Collective Psyche
a. The regressive restoration of the persona

Basically this talks about how to restore a persona that is no inflated, i.e., “god-likeness”.

§472 Jung quotes Faust, Part 2 Act 5 - one of my favourite bits. Basically, in these paragraphs Jung says crudely that the unconscious is unavoidable - we can not ignore it. For example:
§474 “The unconscious cannot be analysed to a finish and brought to a standstill. Nothing can deprive it of its power for any length of time. To attempt to do so by the method described is to deceive ourselves, and is nothing but ordinary repression in a new guise.”

a. Identification with the Collective Psyche

Talking of the hero motif:
§477 ”… Victory over the collective psyche alone yields the true value - the capture of the hoard, the invincible weapon, the magic talisman, or whatever it be that the myth deems most desirable. Anyone who identifies with the collective psyche—or, in mythological terms, lets himself be devoured by the monster and vanishes in it, attains the treasure that the dragon guards, but he does so in spite of himself and to his own greatest harm.” You just know something isn't right when Jung says 'victory over the collective psyche.'
It definitely feels/sounds like a self-confession.

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5. Fundamental Principles in the Treatment of Collective Identity

§487 “If I may be forgiven a humorous illustration of the starting- point for the solution of our problem, I would cite Buridan's ass between the two bundles of hay. Obviously his question was wrongly put. The important thing was not whether the bundle on the right or the one on the left was the better, or which one he ought to start eating, but what he wanted in the depths of his being—which did he feel pushed towards? The ass wanted the object to make up his mind for him.”
§488 “What is it, at this moment and in this individual, that represents the natural urge of life? That is the question.”

§490 “As against these opinions it must be emphasized - not on theoretical grounds but essentially for practical reasons - that although fantasy can be causally ex- plained and devalued in this way, it nevertheless remains the creative matrix of everything that has made progress possible for humanity. Fantasy has its own irreducible value, for it is a psychic function that has its roots in the conscious and the unconscious alike, in the individual as much as in the collective.”

§491 Hermeneutics

§493 “Certain lines of psychological development then stand out that are at once individual and collective. There is no science on earth by which these lines could be proved “right”; on the contrary, rationalism could very easily prove that they are wrong. Their validity is proved by their intense value for life. And that is what matters in practical treatment: that human beings should get a hold on their own lives, not that the principles by which they live should be proved rationally to be “right.””

§498 “He who does not possess this moral function, this loyalty to himself, will never get rid of his neurosis.”
§499 “Neither the doctor nor the patient, therefore, should let himself slip into the belief that analysis by itself is sufficient to remove a neurosis. That would be a delusion and a deception. Infallibly, in the last resort, it is the moral factor that decides between health and sickness.”

§501
19One should not look for any moral function in this signification of dreams, … the function of dreams is above all compensatory, …
We should - as the analyst - try an stay in touch with the unconscious content but not to the detriment of living in the world.
20This is not to say that he should adapt himself simply to the unconscious and not to the world of reality.

§505 “Only when the unconscious is assimilated does the individuality emerge more clearly, together with the psychological phenomenon which links the ego with the non-ego and is designated by the word attitude.” Emphasis mine

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